This book sets forth and builds upon the fundamentals of the dynamics of natural systems in formulating the problem presented by J...
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This book sets forth and builds upon the fundamentals of the dynamics of natural systems in formulating the problem presented by Jacobi in his famous lecture series "Vorlesungen tiber Dynamik" (Jacobi, 1884). In the dynamics of systems described by models of discrete and continuous media, the many-body problem is usually solved in some approximation, or the behaviour of the medium is studied at each point of the space it occupies. Such an approach requires the system of equations of motion to be written in terms of space co-ordinates and velocities, in which case the requirements of an internal observer for a detailed description of the processes are satisfied. In the dynamics discussed here we study the time behaviour of the fundamental integral characteristics of the physical system, i. e. the Jacobi function (moment of inertia) and energy (potential, kinetic and total), which are functions of mass density distribution, and the structure of a system. This approach satisfies the requirements of an external observer. It is designed to solve the problem of global dynamics and the evolution of natural systems in which the motion of the system's individual elements written in space co-ordinates and velocities is of no interest. It is important to note that an integral approach is made to internal and external interactions of a system which results in radiation and absorption of energy. This effect constitutes the basic physical content of global dynamics and the evolution of natural systems. Zusammenfassung `It is stimulating and resourceful reading for the astronomer, geophycist, or for any physically oriented scientists who sees his research subject placed within the framework of global natural systems.' Space Science Reviews, Vol. 47, No. 204, 1988. Inhalt 1. Introduction.- Principle of mutual reversibility.- Action and integral canonical pairs.- Integral characteristics in the study of dynamics of natural systems.- Method of moments: specific features in the integral approach and first moments.- 2. Universality of Jacobi's Virial Equation for Description of Dynamics of Natural Systems in Terms of Integral Characteristics.- Derivation of Jacobi's virial equation from Newtonian equations of motion.- Derivation of generalized Jacobi's virial equation for dissipative systems.- Derivation of Jacobi's virial equation from Eulerian equations.- Derivation of Jacobi's virial equation from Hamiltonian equations.- General covariant form of Jacobi's virial equation.- Relativistic analogue of Jacobi's virial equation.- Derivation of Jacobi's virial equation in quantum mechanics.- 3. Solution of Jacobi's Virial Equation for Conservative Systems.- Solution of Jacobi's virial equation in classical mechanics.- The classical approach.- The integral approach.- General case of conservative systems.- Solution of Jacobi's virial equation in hydrodynamics.- The hydrodynamic approach.- The integral approach.- Equivalence of the Schwarzschild solution and solution of Jacobi's virial equation (static description).- The hydrogen atom as quantum mechanical analogue of the two-body problem.- 4. Perturbed Virial Oscillations of a System.- Analytical solution of generalized equation of virial oscillations.- Solution of Jacobi's virial equation for a dissipative system.- Solution of Jacobi's virial equation for a system with friction.- 5. Relationship Between Jacobi Function and Potential Energy.- Asymptotic limit of simultaneous collision of mass points for a conservative system.- Asymptotic limit of simultaneous collision of mass points for non-conservative systems.- Asymptotic limit of simultaneous collision of charged particles of a system.- Relationship between Jacobi function and potential energy for a system with high symmetry..- System with spherical symmetry.- Polytropic gas sphere model.- System with elliptical symmetry.- System with charged particles.- 6. Applications in Celestial Mechanics and Stellar Dynamics.- Solution of Jacobi's virial equation for Trapezium Orion type systems.- Damping virial oscillations.- Application to the problem of the Moon's motion.- Lyapunov stability of motion.- Lyapunov stability of motion of a system described in terms of co-ordinates and integral characteristics.- Stability of virial oscillations according to Lyapunov.- Stability of virial oscillations of celestial bodies as dissipative systems.- 7. Applications in Astrophysics, Cosmogony and Cosmology.- Velocity of gravitational contraction of a gaseous sphere.- Equilibrium boundary conditions for a gravitating gaseous sphere.- Relationship between potential and rotational energies of a rotating gaseous sphere.- limiting value of angular momentum of a contracting gaseous sphere.- Velocity of gravitational contraction of a gaseous sphere.- The luminosity-mass relationship.- Bifurcation of a dissipative system.- Electromagnetic energy radiation by a celestial body as an electric dipole.- Cosmo-chemical effects.- Direct derivation of the equation of virial oscillations from Einstein's equation.- 8. Global Dynamics of the Earth.- Problems of global dynamics in geophysics.- Unperturbed virial oscillations of the Earth.- The differential approach.- The integral approach.- Solution of Jacobi's virial equation for the Earth's atmosphere.- Perturbed oscillations of the Earth's atmosphere.- Identification of resonance frequencies.- Observation of the virial eigenoscillations of the Earth's atmosphere.- Conclusion.- References.