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This book presents synthesis techniques for the preparation of low-dimensional nanomaterials including 0D (quantum dots), 1D (nanowires, nanotubes) and 2D (thin films, few layers), as well as their potential applications in nanoelectronic systems. It focuses on the size effects involved in the transition from bulk materials to nanomaterials; the electronic properties of nanoscale devices; and different classes of nanomaterials from microelectronics to nanoelectronics, to molecular electronics. Furthermore, it demonstrates the structural stability, physical, chemical, magnetic, optical, electrical, thermal, electronic and mechanical properties of the nanomaterials. Subsequent chapters address their characterization, fabrication techniques from lab-scale to mass production, and functionality.
In turn, the book considers the environmental impact of nanotechnology and novel applications in the mechanical industries, energy harvesting, clean energy, manufacturing materials, electronics, transistors, health and medical therapy. In closing, it addresses the combination of biological systems with nanoelectronics and highlights examples of nanoelectroniccell interfaces and other advanced medical applications.
The book answers the following questions:
• What is different at the nanoscale?
• What is new about nanoscience? • What are nanomaterials (NMs)? • What are the fundamental issues in nanomaterials?
• Where are nanomaterials found? • What nanomaterials exist in nature? • What is the importance of NMs in our lives?
• Why so much interest in nanomaterials? • What is at nanoscale in nanomaterials? • What is graphene?
• Are pure low-dimensional systems interesting and worth pursuing? • Are nanotechnology products currently available? • What are sensors?
• How can Artificial Intelligence (AI) and nanotechnology work together? • What are the recent advances in nanoelectronic materials? • What are the latest applications of NMs?
Presents synthesis techniques for nanomaterials
Provides a valuable introduction to the field, from what is the nanoscale, to the applications of different materials
Offers a complete reference work, covering synthesis, properties, and applications in depth
Dr. LOUTFY H. MADKOUR has been a Professor of Physical Chemistry and Nano Science at the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al Baha University, Saudi Arabia, since 2012. He received his B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from Cairo University, Minia University and Tanta University (Egypt), respectively. He began working as a Lecturer in Chemistry at Tanta University in 1982 and as a Professor of Physical Chemistry in 1999. He has conducted a series of studies in the fields of electrochemistry, corrosion science, density functional theory, molecular dynamic simulation, nanoscience, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, analytical chemistry, polarography, electrolytic extraction of heavy metals from natural ores and deposits, electrochemical thermodynamics and environmental chemistry. His previous research accomplishments include the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) and toxicology studies for pharmacological applications in medicine and therapy. He has published 150 peer-reviewed original research articles, 11 review articles, and 4 books on physical chemistry, practical and applied chemistry, corrosion science, nanoscience and nanomedicine.
Prof. Madkour is an Editorial Board member for several international journals, e.g. the International Journal of Industrial Chemistry (IJIC); International Journal of Ground Sediment & Water; Global Drugs and Therapeutics (GDT); Journal of Targeted Drug Delivery; Journal of Clinical and Medical Research; and International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. In addition to serving as a Reviewer for many international ELSEVIER and SPRINGER journals, he is a member of many prestigious international societies, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), European Desalination Society (EDS), Egyptian Chemical Society (ECS), Egyptian Corrosion Bulletin Society and American Chemical Society (ACS).
CONTENTSSummaryA Look Ahead
1. INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY (NT) AND NANOMATERIALS (NMs)
1.1 Nanotechnology Debate1.2 Nanomaterials (NMs)1.3 The Nanoworld 1.4 Atoms, Clusters and Nanograins1.5 What is Different at the Nanoscale1.6 History of Nanomaterials
2. PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS DEVICES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOELECTRONIC MATERIALS
2.1. Charged particle single nanometer manufacturing 2.2. Exotic effects and potential2.3. Preliminary concepts: elements from solid state physics2.4. Computing electronic transport2.5. Basics of DFT and Methodology2.6. Characterization of Nanomaterials2.7. Characterization TechniquesReferences
3. WHERE ARE NANOMATERIALS (NMs) FOUND
3.1. Nanoparticles Are All Around Us3.2. What Nanomaterials Exist in Nature3.3. Environmental Nanoparticles and Colloids3.4. Humic Substances3.5. Volcanic Ashes3.6. Desert Sources of Nanoparticles3.7. Biological NanoparticlesReferences
4. BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIALS AND NANOWIRE GEOMETRY
4.1 The Nanobulk Stage (10-15 years)4.2 Advances of Nanomaterials (NMs)4.3 The Nanoworld Stage (15-40 years)4.4 NMs Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biological and Chemical Sensing Applications4.5 Benefits of the Nanowire Geometry4.6 Disadvantages of Nanomaterials (NMs)References
5. WHY SO MUCH INTEREST IN NANOMATERIALS (NMs)
5.1. Recent Advances of Nanostructured Materials5.2. New Properties can be created5.3 Some Present and Future Applications of Nanomaterials5.4 Engineered Nanoparticles Change Shape in Soil and Groundwater5.5 Applications of Field-Effect Transistors (FET)5.6 Fabrication of 1-D NanostructuresReferences
6. EXAMPLES OF NANOMATERIALS WITH VARIOUS MORPHOLOGIES
6.1. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)6.2. Nanoparticles6.3. Other Application Examples of Nanoparticles are6.4. Quantum Dots6.5. Nanoshell6.6. Metal Rubber6.7. Nanopores6.8. Nanoparticles with Different MorphologiesReferences
7. CARBON NANOMATERIALS AND TWODIMENSIONAL TRANSITION METAL DICHALCOGENIDES (2D TMDCs)
7.1. Classification of 2D materials7.2. 2D materials, their properties, and applications7.3. Crystal structure of 2D materials7.4. Electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of 2D materials7.5. 2D van der Waals heterostructures7.6. Fabrication of 2D heterostructures7.7. 2D heterostructures and their applications7.8. Fullerenes molecules7.9. Diamond molecules7.10. Carbon Nanotubes (Carbonbased NPs)7.11. Graphene background7.12. Potential Applications of Graphene7.13. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)7.14. The Future of Graphene ResearchReferences
8. NANOELECTRONICS AND ROLE OF SURFACES INTERFACES
8.1. The Development of Microelectronics 8.2. The Region of Nanostructures8.3. Crystal Structure and Dense Planes8.4. The Surface Energy 8.5. Transistor Scaling8.6. Molecular Electronics8.7. Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
9. CLASSIFICATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS
9.1. Gleiter's Classification of Nanostructured Materials (NSM)9.2. Classification of Nanomaterials by Dimensionality9.3. Some Classifications Definitions 9.4. Elementary Building Units (Nanostructures)9.5. Quantum Confinement from 3D to 0D9.6 Matrix-Reinforced and Layered Nanocomposites9.7. Nanowires (NWs)References
10. PROCESSING OF NANOMATERIALS (NMs)
10.1. Top-down approaches10.2. Bottom-up approach10. 3. Two approaches with the same goal10.4. Methods for Creating NanostructuresReferences
11. TECHNIQUES FOR ELABORATION OF NANOMATERIALS
11.1. Vapor Phase Synthesis11.2. Liquid Phase Synthesis11.3. Sol-Gel Technique11.4. Solid State Phase Synthesis11.5. Other Methods11.6. Consolidation of Nanopowders
12. SYNTHESIS METHODS FOR 2D NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS, NANOPARTICLES (NPs), NANOTUBES (NTs) AND NANOWIRES (NWs)
12.1. Synthesis Methods for 2D Materials12.2. Synthesis Methods of Nanoparticles NPs12.3. Synthesis Methods of Nanotubes (NTs)12.4. Synthesis Methods of Nanowires NWsReferences
13. CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS FOR NANOSTRUCTURES SEMICONDUCTIVITY
13.1. Conductivity of Nanowires NWs13.2. Welding Nanowires13.3. Silicon-Germanium Nanowires SiGe NWs13.4. Growth Techniques, Morphology, and Structural Properties of SiGe NWs13.5. Chemical and Physical Properties of Nanowires13.6. Theoretical ModelingReferences
14. PROPERTIES OF NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS (NSMs) AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF (NPs)
14.1. Properties of Nanoscale Matter14.2. Nanoscale materials show quantum confinement effects14.3. The Physical Properties of Nanoclusters14.4. The Electronic Properties14.5. The Magnetic Properties and Classifications of Magnetic Nanomaterials14.6. The Optical Properties14.7. The Electrical Properties14.8. The Mechanical Properties of Nanomaterials14.9 Thermal Properties of NSMs14.10. Chemical Properties of NSMs14.11. Physicochemical Properties of NPsReferences
15. APPLICATIONS OF NANOMATERIALS AND NANOPARTICLES
15.1. Applications of NMs in Mechanical Industries15.2. Applications of NMs in Health and Medical Therapy15.3. Applications in manufacturing and materials15.4. Applications in the Environment15.5. Applications in the Electronics15.6. Applications in Energy Harvesting15.7. Current and future trends 15.8. Examples of Nanomaterials' ApplicationsReferences
16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF NANO MATERIALS AND NANO DEVICES
16.1. From Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics and Molecular Electronics16.2. Nano in Energy and Clean Energy16.3. The Environmental Impact of Nanotechnology16.4. AI and Nanotechnology How do They Work Together16.5. Novel Nanotubes and Encapsulated Nanowires16.6. Novel Applications of Nanowires and Nanotubes16.7. Nanowire-based Transistors (Nanotube field-effect transistor)16.8. Sensing Devices16.9. Racetrack Memory16.10. Nanowire-based Metamaterials16.11. Indicators and Flat Displays16.12. Nanowire Photovoltaics16.13. Nanowires and Nano-Composite as Corrosion InhibitorsReferences
17. INTERFACING BIOLOGY SYSTEMS WITH NANOELECTRONICS
17.1. Nanoelectronic-Biological Interfaces Enable17.2. Molecular Biomimetic: Nanotechnology through Biology17.3. Fundamentals of NanoFET in Biology and Medicine17.4. Multiplexed Extracellular Electrical Recording17.5. Intracellular Electrical Recording17.6. Nanoelectronics Innervated Synthetic Tissues17.7. Application areas of Biosensors and assays17.8. Selection of Inorganic-Binding Proteins through Display Technologies17.9. Future Vision for Life Sciences References
FUTURE PERSPECTIVESCONCLUSIONSBibliographyRecent Published Research Articles in Nanoand BioNanotechnology