The floristic studies carried out during the 19th and 20th centuries in the Retezat Massif identified 1,152 plant species and 104 subspecies within the Cormobionta sub-regnum. Of these, about 12% are endemic Carpathian and Dacian-Balkan taxa that induce a regional specificity to the hosting communities. The phytocoenological research led to the description of 67 plant associations, grouped in 28 alliances, 19 orders and 13 vegetation classes. These classes are: Asplenietea trichomanis, Thlaspietea rotundifolii, Salicetea herbaceae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae, Oxycocco-Sphagnetea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Caricetea curvulae, Loisleurio-Vaccinietea, Elyno-Seslerietea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea, Carpino-Fagetea and Vaccinio-Piceetea. The following plant associations herein described are new syntaxa: Phyteumo confusi-Junicetum trifidi, Salici kitaibelianae-Dryadetum octopetalae and Aconito taurici-Rumicetum alpine. For the protection of some rare plant species and vulnerable plant associations, two natural reserves are proposed to be created within the "Limestone Retezat" area.
Physical, geographical and geological description of the Retezat mountains.- History of floristic and vegetation research.- Areal-geographical characterization of the Retezat flora and the endangered species.- Mapping rare, endangered angiosperm species of phytogeographical interest from the Retezat national park.- Vegetation of the Retezat mountains.- Description of the plant associations distinguished in the Retezat national park.- Considerations on the flora, vegetation and conservation of the plant gene pool in the Retezat national park.
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The Vascular Plant Communities of the Retezat National Park (Southern Carpathians)