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International Tourism

  • Kartonierter Einband
  • 460 Seiten
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Over the years there has been a considerable interest in the cultural aspects of tourism such as the impacts of culture on tourism... Weiterlesen
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Over the years there has been a considerable interest in the cultural aspects of tourism such as the impacts of culture on tourism planning, development, management, and marketing. This title gives a coverage of cross-cultural issues and behavior in tourism. It illustrates how international cultural differences influence travel decision-making.


Yvette Reisinger PhD is Associate Professor of Tourism at the Department of Management at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia


This exciting new text is the first to focus on cross-cultural differences in tourist behavior and draws upon the evidence from the broad past and current literature to explain the influence of cultural differences on the present and future international tourist. An examination of cultural characteristics and differences is extremely important to the tourism student because of the international nature of tourism environment. Advances in technology and improved communication and transportation have enhanced peoples' mobility and travel such that exposure to and interaction with different cultures is now commonplace. It is imperative for industry representatives, who operate in the international business environment and deal with foreign tourists on a daily basis, to understand the influence of national cultures of their customers. This book brings these concepts to the undergraduate student in tourism, as well as students in the related fields of marketing, management, international business, and cross-cultural communication. Designed as a textbook, it is organized and presented in an integrated and relevant way for the benefit of a global audience.


Table of Contents Acknowledgements Preface List of Tables List of Figures Foreword Introduction Aims Scope Reader benefits General market Part One International Tourism: The Global Environment 1 Globalization, tourism and culture Introduction 1.1 The concept and roots of globalization 1.2 Benefits and criticism of globalization 1.3 Globalization and the tourism industry 1.3.1 The influence of globalization on tourism 1.3.2 Forms and examples of globalization in tourism 1.3.3 A new type of tourist 1.3.4 A new type of tourism 1.4 Globalization and culture 1.4.1 The emergence of globalized consumer culture? 1.4.2 Global consumer and global products? 1.4.3 Disappearance of local cultures? 1.4.4 Cultural homogenization? 1.4.5 Product standardization or customization? 1.4.6 Cultural heterogenization? 1.4.7 Cultural convergence or divergence? 1.4.8 Cultural hybridization? 1.4.9 Cultural commoditization? 1.4.10 Cultural deterioration, loss, adaptation or change? 1.4.11 Consumerism a bad thing for tourism? 1.4.12 Globalization and disappearance of local identity? 1.4.13 Resistance to cultural change and emergence of local identity 1.4.14 Glocalisation 1.4.15 Local internationalization and regional cooperation 1.5 Benefits and limitations of globalization in tourism 1.6 Challenges of globalization in tourism 1.7 The future of globalization: Americanization of culture, cosmopolitan culture, cultural hybridization, cultural disappearance or culture clash? Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 1.1: The emergence of a global tourist culture? Disneyland resorts spread over the world Website links References 2 Cultural diversity Introduction 2.1 The concept of cultural diversity 2.1.1 Definition 2.1.2 Interpretation of cultural diversity 2.1.3 How did the concept of cultural diversity develop? 2.1.4 How to measure cultural diversity? 2.1.5 Is cultural diversity important? 2.1.6 The benefits of cultural diversity 2.1.7 The influence of cultural diversity on tourism and hospitality 2.2 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 2.3 The future of cultural diversity 2.4 Challenges for the tourism and hospitality industry Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 2.1: American in Paris Case Study 2.2: Creativity in a tense situation Case Study 2.3: Promoting the unpromotional Website links References Part Two Cultural Theories and Practices 3 Intercultural theories Introduction 3.1 Communication Resourcefulness Theory (CRT) 3.2 Episode Representation Theory (ERT) 3.3 Expectations Theory (ET) 3.4 Cultural Identity Negotiation Theory (CINT) 3.5 Meaning of Meaning Theory 3.6 Network Theory in Intercultural Communication 3.7 Taxonomic Approach (TA) 3.8 Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory (AUMT) 3.9 Stranger Theory 3.10 Face-Negotiation Theory 3.11 Intercultural Adaptation Theory (IAT) 3.12 Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) 3.13 Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMMT) 3.14 Constructivist Theory (CT) Summary Discussion points and questions Further reading Website links References 4 Cultural practices and tourism impacts on culture Introduction 4.1 Erosion of local cultures 4.2 Cultural commoditization and transformation 4.3 Cultural hostility 4.4 Cultural arrogance 4.5 Authenticity of tourism experiences 4.6 Renaissance of traditional art forms 4.7 Marketing of culture and violation of rights to own cultural heritage 4.8 Culture change 4.9 Culture diffusion 4.10 Cultural borrowing 4.11 Cultural drift 4.12 Acculturation 4.13 Cultural adaptation 4.14 Cultural adjustment 4.15 Culture assimilation 4.16 Enculturation 4.17 Demonstration effect 4.18 Cultural conflict Summary Discussion points and questions Further readings Case Study 4.1: Discovering the Maori culture Website links References Part Three Culture and Cultural Differences 5 Culture Introduction 5.1 Definition of culture 5.2 Culture as civilization 5.3 Cultures by region 5.4 Culture as religion 5.5 The world's major religions 5.6 Religion by region 5.7 Types and levels of culture 5.8 Civilization 5.9 Types of


Titel: International Tourism
Untertitel: Cultures and Behavior
EAN: 9780750678971
ISBN: 978-0-7506-7897-1
Format: Kartonierter Einband
Herausgeber: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Genre: Soziologie
Anzahl Seiten: 460
Gewicht: 848g
Größe: H234mm x B192mm x T23mm
Jahr: 2009