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Viruses in Foods

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Foodborne viruses are an important group of pathogens recognizedto cause significant disease globally, in terms of both number ofillnesses and severity of disease. Contamination of foods by enteric viruses, such ashuman norovirus and hepatitis A and E viruses, is a major concern to publichealth and food safety. Food Virology is a burgeoning field of emphasis for scientificresearch. Many developments in foodborne virus detection, prevention and control havebeen made in recent years and are the basis of this publication.

This second edition of Viruses in Foods provides anup-to-date description of foodborne viruses of public health importance, including theirepidemiology and methods for detection, prevention and control. It uniquely includes casereports of past outbreaks with implications for better control of future outbreaks, asection that can be considered a handbook for foodborne virus detection, and updated andexpanded information on virus prevention and control, with chapters on naturalvirucidal compounds in foods and risk assessment of foodborne viruses.

Sagar M. Goyal is a Professor of Virology in the Veterinary Population Medicine Department at the University of Minnesota's College of Veterinary Medicine.

Jennifer L. Cannon is an Associate Professor of Food Virology at the University of Georgia's Center for Food Safety and in the Department of Food Science and Technology.  


Foodborne viruses are an important group of pathogens recognized to cause significant disease globally, in terms of both number of illnesses and severity of disease. Contamination of foods by enteric viruses, such as human norovirus and hepatitis A and E viruses, is a major concern to public health and food safety. Food Virology is a burgeoning field of emphasis for scientific research. Many developments in foodborne virus detection, prevention and control have been made in recent years and are the basis of this publication.

This second edition of Viruses in Foods provides an up-to-date description of foodborne viruses of public health importance, including their epidemiology and methods for detection, prevention and control. It uniquely includes case reports of past outbreaks with implications for better control of future outbreaks, a section that can be considered a handbook for foodborne virus detection, and updated and expanded information on virus prevention and control, with chapters on natural virucidal compounds in foods and risk assessment of foodborne viruses.

1. Food Virology: Advances and Needs
Charles P. Gerba


2. Human and Animal Viruses in Food (Including Taxonomy of Enteric Viruses)
Gail E. Greening, Jennifer L. Cannon
1.0  Introduction
2.0  Hepatitis A virus
2.1  Distribution and transmission
2.2  Taxonomy and morphology
2.3  Growth and biological properties
2.4  Infection and disease
2.5  Foodborne disease
3.0  Hepatitis E virus
3.1  Distribution and transmission
3.2  Taxonomy and morphology
3.3  Growth and biological properties
3.4  Infection and disease
3.5  Foodborne disease
3.6  Zoonotic transmission
4.0  Norovirus 
4.1  Distribution and transmission
4.2  Taxonomy and morphology
4.3  Growth and biological properties
4.4  Infection and disease
4.5  Foodborne disease
4.6  Zoonotic transmission
5.0  Sapovirus
5.1  Distribution and transmission
5.2  Taxonomy and morphology
5.3  Growth and biological properties
5.4  Infection and disease
5.5  Foodborne disease
5.6  Zoonotic transmission
6.0  Rotavirus
6.1  Distribution and transmission
6.2  Taxonomy and morphology
6.3  Growth and biological properties
6.4  Infection and disease
6.5  Foodborne disease
6.6  Zoonotic transmission
7.0  Astrovirus
7.1  Distribution and transmission
7.2  Taxonomy and morphology
7.3  Growth and biological properties
7.4  Infection and disease
7.5  Foodborne disease
8.0  Other viruses with potential for foodborne transmission
8.1  Adenovirus
8.2  Enterovirus
8.3  Aichivirus
8.4  Parvovirus
8.5  Coronavirus
8.6  Torovirus
8.7  Picobirnavirus
8.8  Tick-borne encephalitis virus
8.9  Other foodborne routes of virus transmission
9.0   Summary and conclusions
10.0   References

3. The Molecular Virology of Enteric Viruses
Javier Buesa, Jesús Rodriguez-Díaz

1.0 Caliciviruses: Noroviruses and Sapoviruses
1.1. Structure and Composition 
1.2. Genomes and Proteins
1.3. Molecular Diversity of Noroviruses
1.4. Genetic Classification of Sapoviruses
1.5. Virus Replication
1.6. Virus-Cell Interactions
2.0 Rotaviruses
2.1. Virus Classification
2.2. Structure of the Virion
2.3. The Genome
2.4. Mechanisms of Evolution and Strain Diversity
2.5. Genome Replication
2.6. Cell infection
2.7. The NSP4 Enterotoxin
3.0 Astroviruses
3.1. Structure of the Virion
3.2. Genome and Proteins
4.0 Enteroviruses
4.1. Polioviruses
4.2. Kobuviruses
5.0 Hepatitis A Virus
5.1. The Genome
5.2. Proteins
5.3. Virus Replication
6.0 Hepatitis E Virus<
6.1. The Genome
6.2. Genetic Variants
6.3. Proteins
6.4. Replication
7.0 Enteric Adenovirus
8.0 Summary
9.0 References

4. Epidemiology of Food-borne Viruses
Aron J. Hall

1.0  Introduction
2.0  Disease Burden
2.1  Challenges and Methods to Estimating Burden
2.2  Burden in the United States
2.3  Global Burden
3.0  Outbreak Surveillance
3.1  Outbreak Detection Methods
3.2  Public Health Investigation
3.3  National Surveillance Systems
3.4  Descriptive Epidemiology
4.0  Summary and Conclusions
5.0  References

5. Epidemiology of Viral Foodborne Outbreaks: Role of Food Handlers, Irrigation Water, and Surfaces
Craig Hedberg

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Outbreak detection, investigation, and surveillance
3.0 Role of food handlers
4.0 Role of irrigation water
5.0 Role of surface contamination
6.0 Summary and conclusions7.0 References

6. Case Studies and Outbreaks Fresh Produce
Efstathia Papafragkou, Kaoru Hida and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

1.0.  Introduction
2.0.  Case studies and outbreaks
2.1  Norovirus outbreaks
2.2  Hepatitis A virus outbreaks

3.0.  Summary and conclusions
4.0.  References

7. Shellfish-Associated Enteric Virus Illness: Virus Localization, Disease Outbreaks and Prevention
Gary P. Richards

1.0.  Introduction
2.0.  Virus localization within shellfish
3.0.  Case studies
3.1.  Hepatitis A virus
3.2.  Noroviruses
3.3.  Hepatitis E virus
4.0.  Disease prevention
4.1.  Routine monitoring and regulations
4.2.  Enhanced monitoring and enforcement
4.3.  Improved sewage treatment 
4.4.  Analytical techniques
4.5.  Processing strategies
4.6.  Disease reporting and epidemiological follow-up
4.7.  Hygienic practices
5.0.  Summary 
6.0.  References

8. Outbreaks and case studies Community and Food Handlers
Qing Wang, Sarah Markland, and Kalmia E. Kniel
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Human norovirus
2.1 Case study 1
2.2 Case study 2
2.3 Case study 3
2.4 Prevention and control

3.0 Rotavirus
3.1 Case study 1
3.2 Case study 2
3.3 Case study 3
3.4 Prevention and control

4.0 Hepatitis A Virus
4.1 Case study 1
4.2 Prevention and control

5.0 Aichivirus
6.0 Hepatitis E Virus
6.1 Case study 1
6.2 Case study 2
6.3 Prevention and control

7.0 Summary
8.0 References

9. Methods for Virus Recovery from Foods
Sagar M. Goyal and Hamada A. Aboubakr

3.1 The approach of viral particle recovery
3.1.1 Elution of viral particles from food matrices
< 3.1.2 Clarification of the virus eluate
3.1.3 Concentration step
3.1.4 Secondary concentration step

3.2 The approach of direct recovery of viral RNA from food

10. Methods for Virus Recovery in Water
Kristen E. Gibson and Mark A. Borchardt

1.0  Introduction

2.0  Virus recovery methods
2.2  Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration 
2.3  Secondary Concentration

2.4  Method Selection: What is important?

3.0  Advantages of virus sampling

5.0  Summary and conclusions

6.0  References

11. Molecular Detection Methods of Foodborne Viruses
Preeti Chhabra & Jan Vinjé
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Non-amplification methods
2.1 Probe hybridization 
2.1.1 Biosensors
2.1.2 Nucleic acid aptamers
2.1.3 Carbohydrates (Histo-blood group antigens)
2.1.4 Quantum dots
2.1.5 Microarray
3.0 Target-specific amplification methods
3.1 Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR): RT-PCR, nested PCR, multiplex PCR
3.1.1 Post amplification analysis and interpretation of results of conventional PCRs
3.2 Real-time PCR
3.3. Controls: process controls and amplification controls
3.3.1 Process controls
3.3.2 Amplification controls
3.3.3 Interpretation of PCR and qPCR results based on control results
3.4 Application of conventional and real-time PCRs in detection of viruses in food matrix
3.5 Isothermal amplification methods
3.5.1 Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) Molecular Beacon in NASBA
3.5.2 Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)
4.0 Conclusions
5.0 References

12. Methods for Estimating Virus Infectivity
Doris H. D'Souza

1.0 Introduction
2.0 RT-PCR for infectious virus detection
2.1 Enzymatic pretreatments for detection of damaged capsid/loss of infectivity
2.2 Labelling with biotin hydrazide for detection of oxidatively damaged viral capsids
2.3 Pretreatment with intercalating dyes followed by molecular assays for  infectivity determination
2.4 Porcine gastric mucin (PGM) as a method for selective binding of intact viral capsids
2.5 Other binding-based infectivity assays
2.6 Cell-culture combinations with molecular based detection (RT-PCR)
3.0 Use of cultivable surrogates for the determination of human norovirus (HuNoV) infectivity
3.1 Feline calicivirus as a cultivable HuNoV surrogate to determine infectivity
3.2   Murine norovirus as a cultivable surrogate for HuNoV 
3.3 Tulane virus as a cultivable surrogate to determine HuNoV infectivity
3.4 Porcine sapovirus as a cultivable HuNoV surrogate to determine infectivity
3.5 Virus-Like particles as surrogates
4.0 Animal models and human feeding studies 
4.1 Animal models
4.2 Feeding studies/Human challenge studies
5.0 Summary and conclusions
6.0 References

13. Survival of Enteric Viruses in the Environment and Food
G. Sánchez, A. Bosch

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Methods to study virus persistence in food and the environment

3.0 Virus persistence in the environment
3.1 Virus persistence in environmental waters 
3.2 Virus persistence in soil
3.3 Virus persistence in aerosols
3.4 Virus persistence on fomites
3.5 Virus persistence on hands

4.0 Stability of enteric viruses in food products
4.1 Stability of enteric viruses on chilled products 
4.2 Stability of enteric viruses under frozen storage 
4.3 Effects of relative humidity on enteric virus persistence
4.4 Stability of enteric viruses on dried food products
4.5 Stability of enteric viruses under modified atmosphere packaging
4.6 Effects of acidification on enteric virus survival

5.0 Conclusions

6.0 References

14. Using Microbicidal Chemicals to Interrupt the Spread of Foodborne Viruses
Syed A. Sattar, Sabah Bidawid

1.0  Introduction
2.0 Basic considerations
3.0 Test methodologies to determine virucidal activity
4.0 Factors in testing virucidal activity
4.1 Test viruses
4.2 Nature and design of carriers
4.2.1 Environmental surfaces
4.2.2 Food items
4.2.3 Hands
4.3 Nature and level of soil loading
4.4 Time and temperature for virus-microbicide contact
4.5 Elimination of Cytotoxicity
4.6 Neutralization of virucidal activity
4.7 Quantitation of virus infectivity
4.8 Number of test and control carriers
4.9 Product performance criteria
5.0 Currently available tests
5.1 Quantitative suspension tests
5.2 Quantitative carrier tests
6.0 Practical aspects of testing microbicides
6.1 Hepatitis A virus strain HM-175 (ATCC VR-1402)
6.2 Feline calicivirus strain F9 (ATCC VR-782)
6.3 Murine norovirus type 1 (Strain S99)
6.4 Human rotavirus - WA strain (ATCC VR-2018)
6.5 Additional Controls in virucidal Tests
7.0 Microbicides in environmental control of foodborne viruses
8.0 Concluding remarks
9.0 References

15. Virus Inactivation During Food Processing
Alvin Lee, Stephen Grove
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Nonthermal preservation processes
2.1 High pressure processing
2.1.1 Pressure effects on viruses
2.1.2. Comparison of HPP inactivation of various human norovirus surrogates
2.1.3 Oyster and bivalve mollusks processing
2.2 Irradiation
2.3 Pulsed electric field
2.4 High-intensity pulsed light
2.5 High power ultrasound
3.0 Sanitizers used in food processing
3.1 Chlorine
3.2 Organic acid based sanitizers
3.3 Electrolyzed water
3.4 Chlorine dioxide
4.0 Summary and conclusions
4.2 References

16. Natural Virucidal Compounds in Foods
right, Damian H. Gilling
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Types of plant antimicrobials
2.0 Antiviral activity of compounds from plants
2.1 Efficacy of plant antimicrobials against enveloped viruses
2.2 Efficacy of plant antimicrobials against non-enveloped viruses

3.0 Mechanisms of antiviral action
3.1 Mechanisms of antiviral activity against enveloped viruses
3.2 Mechanisms of antiviral activity against non-enveloped viruses

4.0 Conclusions
5.0 References

17. Risk Assessment for Foodborne Viruses
Elizabeth Bradshaw and Lee-Ann Jaykus

1.0 Introduction to risk analysis
1.1 Risk management
1.2 Risk communication
1.3 Risk assessment
2.0 Microbial risk assessment
3.0 Process of risk assessment
4.0 Structure of risk assessment
4.1 Hazard identification
4.2 Exposure assessment
4.3 Hazard characterization
4.4 Risk characterization
5.0 Elements of risk assessment in food virology
5.1 Hazard assessment, risk profiles, and meta analysis
5.2 Data for exposure modeling
5.3 Predictive microbiology
5.4 Hazard characterization
6.0 Recent risk modeling efforts in food virology
6.1 Fresh produce
6.1.a Irrigation with wastewater or recycled water
6.1.b Fresh produce along the farm-to-fork chain
6.2 Molluscan shellfish
6.3 RTE foods and food handling
6.4 Synthesis comments
7.0 Conclusions
8.0 Acknowledgements
9.0 References



Titel: Viruses in Foods
EAN: 9783319307213
ISBN: 3319307215
Format: Fester Einband
Herausgeber: Springer International Publishing
Anzahl Seiten: 528
Gewicht: 951g
Größe: H241mm x B160mm x T34mm
Jahr: 2016
Auflage: 2nd ed. 2016

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