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Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants

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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Kriopigi, Halkidiki, Greece, September 22-28, 1996The NATO Advanced Research W... Weiterlesen
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Kriopigi, Halkidiki, Greece, September 22-28, 1996

The NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on "Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants" intended to provide a forum to scientists from academia, industry, and govemment for discussing and critically assessing recent advances in the field of xenobiotic metabolism in plants and for identifying new directions for future research. Plants function in a chemical environment made up of nutrients and xenobiotics. Xenobiotics (foreign chemicals) are natural or synthetic compounds that can not be utilized by plants for energy-yielding metabolism. Plants may be exposed to xenobiotics either deliberately, due to their use as pesticides or accidentally, from industrial, agricultural, and other uses. Plants, like most other organisms, evolved a remarkable battery or metabolic reactions to defend themselves against the potentially toxic effects of xenobiotics. The main enzymatic reactions utilized by plants for xenobiotic detoxification include oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and conjugation with glutathione, sugars (e.g., glucose), and amino acids. Eventually, xenobiotic conjugates are converted to insoluble bound residues or to secondary conjugates, which are deposited in the vacuole of plant cells.


Xenobiotics (foreign chemicals) are natural or synthetic substances (such as pesticides) that cannot be utilized by plants in their energy-yielding metabolism. The main enzymatic reactions used by plants for xenobiotic detoxification include oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, and conjugation with glutathione, sugars and amino acids. Xenobiotic conjugates may be compartmentalized in the vacuole of plant cells by means of membrane-bound transporters. In the present book many of the world's experts discuss recent advances associated with the regulation of gene expression and enzymology of the major classes of xenobiotic degrading enzymes. Genetic engineering of crops with plant or bacterial detoxification genes and chemical regulation of the enzymatic systems that detoxify xenobiotics in plants by herbicide safeners and synergists are also discussed. Audience: Advanced level and graduate students and professional scientists in agronomy, plant physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, chemistry, etc.


Preface. Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants: A Brief Overview and Directions for Future Research; K.K. Hatzios. Part One: Xenobiotic Metabolism Mediated by Plant Cytochrome P450s and Esterases. Endogenous Reactions and Substrate Specificity of Herbicide Metabolizing Enzymes; B. McGonigle, et al. Induction of Plant Cytochrome P450; F. Durst, et al. Role of Cytochrome P450s in Herbicide Metabolism and Selectivity and Multiple Herbicide Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Activities in Maize; M. Barrett, et al. Inhibition of Plant Oxidative Deactivation: A Mechanism to Enhance Efficacy and Manage Resistance to Thiazopyr Herbicide; P.C.C. Feng. Enzymatic De-Esterification of Xenobiotics in Plants; B.J. Incledon, J.C. Hall. Part Two: Glutathione-Mediated Metabolism of Xenobiotics in Plants. The Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle and Oxidative Stresses in Plants; T. Kömives, et al. Molecular Biology of the Antioxidant Defense Genes Encoding Catalases and Superoxide Dismutases in Maize; J.G. Scandalios. The Biosynthesis of Glutathione Explored in Transformed Plants; G. Noctor, et al. Glutathione, a Regulator of Chloroplast Transcription; G. Link, et al. Glutathione Transferases in Crops and Major Weeds; D.J. Cole, et al. Characterization and Induction of Maize Glutathione S-Transferases Involved in Herbicide Detoxification; G.P. Irzyk, E.P. Fuerst. Role of the Different GST Isozymes of Maize in Herbicide Tolerance: Genetic and Biochemical Analysis; C. Frova, et al. Activation of Proherbicides by Glutathione S-Transferase; B. Nicolaus, et al. Flavonoids and Phytohormones, Two Toxic Secondary Metabolites, are GST Substrates; M. Alfenito, V. Walbot. Part Three: Glucosyl and Malonyl Conjugation and Compartmentation of Xenobiotic Conjugates. The Role of Glucosyl and Malonyl Conjugation in Herbicide Selectivity; H. Sandermann, Jr., et al. Fate of Glutathione S-Conjugates in Plants: Degradation of the Glutathione Moiety; P. Schröder. Compartmentation of Detoxified Xenobiotics in Plant Cells; M.M.A. Blake-Kalff, et al. Part Four: Chemical Regulation of Plant Enzymes Detoxifying Xenobiotics. Defining and Characterizing Synergism and Antagonism for Xenobiotic Mixtures; J.M. Green, et al. Regulation of Xenobiotic Degrading Enzymes with Herbicide Safeners; K.K. Hatzios. Regulation of Xenobiotic Degrading Enzymes with Insecticides and Other Synergists; M. Barrett. Part Five: Enhanced Xenobiotic Detoxification in Transgenic Crops and Resistant Weeds. Herbicide-Resistant Tobacco and Potato Plants Expressing Mammalian P450 Monooxygenases; H. Ohkawa, et al. Transgenic Plant Analysis as a Tool for the Study of Maize Glutathione S-Transferases; I. Jepson, et al. Foreign Detoxification Genes Expressed in Plants for Developing Herbicide Tolerant Genotypes: Development of Glufosinate Vegetables; A.S. Tsaftaris, et al. Herbicide Tolerance in Transgenic Plants Expressing Bacterial Detoxification Genes. The Case of Bromoxynil; K.E. Pallett, et al. Cross-Resistance and Herbicide Metabolism in Alopecurus Myosuroides Huds.; R. De Prado, J. Menendez. Subject Index.


Titel: Regulation of Enzymatic Systems Detoxifying Xenobiotics in Plants
EAN: 9789048148790
ISBN: 9048148790
Format: Kartonierter Einband
Herausgeber: Springer Netherlands
Anzahl Seiten: 404
Gewicht: 610g
Größe: H235mm x B155mm x T21mm
Jahr: 2010
Auflage: Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 1997

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