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Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences

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Submarine mass movements represent major offshore geohazards due to their destructive and tsunami-generation potential. This pot... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Submarine mass movements represent major offshore geohazards due to their destructive and tsunami-generation potential. This potential poses a threat to human life as well as to coastal, nearshore and offshore engineering structures. Recent examples of catastrophic submarine landslide events that affected human populations (including tsunamis) are numerous; e.g., Nice airport in 1979, Papua-New Guinea in 1998, Stromboli in 2002, Finneidfjord in 1996, and the 2006 and 2009 failures in the submarine cable network around Taiwan. The Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 also generated submarine landslides that may have amplified effects of the devastating tsunami. Given that 30% of the World's population live within 60 km of the coast, the hazard posed by submarine landslides is expected to grow as global sea level rises. This elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of submarine landslides is coupled with great advances in submarine mapping, sampling and monitoring technologies. Laboratory analogue and numerical modeling capabilities have also developed significantly of late. Multibeam sonar, 3D seismic reflection, and remote and autonomous underwater vehicle technologies provide hitherto unparalleled imagery of the geology beneath the oceans, permitting investigation of submarine landslide deposits in great detail. Increased and new access to drilling, coring, in situ measurements and monitoring devices allows for ground-thruth of geophysical data and provides access to samples for geotechnical laboratory experiments and information on in situ strength and effective stress conditions of underwater slopes susceptible to fail. Great advances in numerical simulation techniques of submarine landslide kinematics and tsunami propagation, particularly since the 2004 Sumatra tsunami, have also lead to increased understanding and predictability of submarine landslide consequences. This volume consists of the latest scientific research by international experts in geological, geophysical, engineering and environmental aspects of submarine mass failure, focused on understanding the full spectrum of challenges presented by submarine mass movements and their consequences.



Inhalt

1 Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences

Part I Physical Properties of Sediments and Slope Stability Assessment

2 Risk Assessment for Earthquake-Induced Submarine Slides

3 Shallow Landslides and Their Dynamics in Coastal and Deepwater Environments, Norway

4 Physical Properties and Age of Continental Slope Sediments Dredged from the Eastern Australian Continental Margin Implications for Timing of Slope Failure

5 Submarine Landslides on the Upper Southeast Australian Passive Continental Margin Preliminary Findings

6 Development and Potential Triggering Mechanisms for a Large Holocene Landslide in the Lower

St. Lawrence Estuary

7 Spatially Fixed Initial Break Point and Fault-Rock Development in a Landslide Area

8 Pore Water Geochemistry as a Tool for Identifying and Dating Recent Mass-Transport Deposits

9 An In-Situ Free-Fall Piezocone Penetrometer for Characterizing Soft and Sensitive Clays at Finneidfjord (Northern Norway)

10 Static and Cyclic Shear Strength of Cohesive and Non-cohesive Sediments

11 Upstream Migration of Knickpoints: Geotechnical Considerations

Part II Seafloor Geomorphology for Trigger Mechanisms and Landslide Dynamics

12 A Reevaluation of the Munson-Nygren-Retriever Submarine Landslide Complex, Georges Bank Lower Slope, Western North Atlantic

13 Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

14 Extensive Erosion of the Deep Seafloor Implications for the Behavior of Flows Resulting from Continental Slope Instability

15 Investigations of Slides at the Upper Continental Slope Off Vesterålen, North Norway

16 Dakar Slide Offshore Senegal, NW-Africa: Interaction of Stacked Giant Mass Wasting Events and Canyon Evolution

17 Large-Scale Mass Wasting on the Northwest African Continental Margin: Some General Implications for Mass Wasting on Passive Continental Margins

18 Deep-Seated Bedrock Landslides and Submarine Canyon Evolution in an Active Tectonic Margin: Cook Strait, New Zealand

19 Polyphase Emplacement of a 30 km3 Blocky Debris Avalanche and Its Role in Slope-Gully Development

20 Slope Failure and Canyon Development Along the Northern South China Sea Margin

21 Distinguishing Sediment Bedforms from Sediment Deformation in Prodeltas of the Mediterranean Sea

22 Hydroacoustic Analysis of Mass Wasting Deposits in Lake Ohrid (FYR Macedonia/Albania)

23 New Evidence of Holocene Mass Wasting Events in Recent Volcanic Lakes from the French Massif Central (Lakes Pavin, Montcineyre and Chauvet) and Implications for Natural Hazards

Part III Role of Fluid Flow in Slope Instability

24 A Review of Overpressure, Flow Focusing, and Slope Failure

25 How Do ~2° Slopes Fail in Areas of Slow Sedimentation? A Sensitivity Study on the Influence of Accumulation Rate and Permeability on Submarine Slope Stability

26 The BGR Slide Off Costa Rica: Preconditioning Factors, Trigger, and Slide Dynamics

27 Detailed Observation of Topography and Geologic Architecture of a Submarine Landslide Scar in a Toe of an Accretionary Prism

28 Possible Ground Instability Factor Implied by Slumping and Dewatering Structures in High-Methane-Flux Continental Slope

29 Identification of Weak Layers and Their Role for the Stability of Slopes at Finneidfjord, Northern Norway

30 Mass Movements in a Transform Margin Setting: The Example of the Eastern Demerara Rise

Part IV Mechanics of Mass-Wasting in Subduction Margins

31 Slope Failures in Analogue Models of Accretionary Wedges

32 Systematic Development of Submarine Slope Failures at Subduction Margins: Fossil Record of Accretion-Related Slope Failure in the Miocene Hota Accretionary Complex, Central Japan

33 Morphologic Expression of Accretionary Processes and Recent Submarine Landslides Along the Southwestern Pacific Margin of Colombia

34 Submarine Mass Wasting Off Southern Central Chile: Distribution and Possible Mechanisms of Slope Failure at an Active Continental Margin

35 An Overview of the Role of Long-Term Tectonics and Incoming Plate Structure on Segmentation of Submarine Mass Wasting Phenomena Along the Middle America Trench

Part V Post-Failure Dynamics

Produktinformationen

Titel: Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences
Untertitel: 5th International Symposium
Autor:
Editor:
EAN: 9789400721623
ISBN: 978-94-007-2162-3
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Hersteller: Springer Netherlands
Herausgeber: Springer
Genre: Geografie
Veröffentlichung: 13.10.2011
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen
Dateigrösse: 57.67 MB
Anzahl Seiten: 769
Jahr: 2011

Weitere Bände aus der Buchreihe "Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research"