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The Autopoiesis of Architecture

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Take a theoretical approach to architecture with The Autopoiesis of Architecture, which presents the topic as a discipline with it... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Take a theoretical approach to architecture with The Autopoiesis of Architecture, which presents the topic as a discipline with its own unique logic. Architecture's conception of itself is addressed as well as its development within wider contemporary society.

Author Patrik Schumacher offers innovative treatment that enriches architectural theory with a coordinated arsenal of concepts facilitating both detailed analysis and insightful comparisons with other domains, such as art, science and politics. He explores how the various modes of communication comprising architecture depend upon each other, combine, and form a unique subsystem of society that co-evolves with other important autopoietic subsystems like art, science, politics and the economy.

The first of two volumes that together present a comprehensive account of architecture's autopoiesis, this book elaborates the theory of architecture?s autopoeisis in 8 parts, 50 sections and 200 chapters. Each of the 50 sections poses a thesis drawing a central message from the insights articulated within the respective section. The 200 chapters are gathering and sorting the accumulated intelligence of the discipline according to the new conceptual framework adopted, in order to catalyze and elaborate the new formulations and insights that are then encapsulated in the theses. However, while the theoretical work in the text of the chapters relies on the rigorous build up of a new theoretical language, the theses are written in ordinary language ? with the theoretical concepts placed in brackets. The full list of the 50 theses affords a convenient summary printed as appendix at the end of the book.

The second volume completes the analysis of the discourse and further proposes a new agenda for contemporary architecture in response to the challenges and opportunities that confront architectural design within the context of current societal and technological developments.



Patrik Schumacher is partner at Zaha Hadid Architects and founding director of the Design Research Laboratory (DRL) at the Architectural Association (AA) in London. He studied philosophy and architecture in Bonn, London and Stuttgart, where he received his architectural Diploma in 1990. In 1996 he founded the AADRL with Brett Steele, and continues to serve as one of its directors. In 1999 he completed his PhD at the Institute for Cultural Science, Klagenfurt University. Patrik Schumacher joined Zaha Hadid in 1988. Since then Zaha Hadid Architects has expanded from a small studio to a global firm employing over 300 architects. Patrik Schumacher's career continues to integrate practice and theory. His contribution to the discourse of contemporary architecture is also evident in his prior writings, such as Digital Hadid, 2004, as well as in his curatorial work for exhibitions, such as Latent Utopias, Graz, 2002. His essays are available onwww.patrikschumacher.com.

Autorentext

Patrik Schumacher is partner at Zaha Hadid Architects and founding director of the Design Research Laboratory (DRL) at the Architectural Association (AA) in London. He studied philosophy and architecture in Bonn, London and Stuttgart, where he received his architectural Diploma in 1990. In 1996 he founded the AADRL with Brett Steele, and continues to serve as one of its directors. In 1999 he completed his PhD at the Institute for Cultural Science, Klagenfurt University. Patrik Schumacher joined Zaha Hadid in 1988. Since then Zaha Hadid Architects has expanded from a small studio to a global ???rm employing over 300 architects. Patrik Schumacher's career continues to integrate practice and theory. His contribution to the discourse of contemporary architecture is also evident in his prior writings, such as Digital Hadid, 2004, as well as in his curatorial work for exhibitions, such as Latent Utopias, Graz, 2002. His essays are available on www.patrikschumacher.com.

Klappentext

By presenting architecture as a discipline with its own unique logic, The Autopoiesis of Architecture provides a wholly new theoretical approach to architecture. The impact of this is far reaching. Architecture's conception of itself is addressed but also that of its development within wider contemporary society. Schumacher's innovative treatment of the subject enriches architectural theory with a coordinated arsenal of concepts that facilitates both detailed analysis and insightful comparisons with other domains, such as art, science and politics. The 'Autopoiesis' of the title refers to self-production: the term having ???rst been introduced in biology to describe the essential characteristic of life as a circular organization that reproduces all its speci???c components out of its own life process. Once transposed into the theory of social systems, autopoiesis came to be understood as a system of communication capable of producing all its speci???c communication structures within their own internal process. It is this autopoietic system of communication that is being applied here to an architectural context. Architecture comprises various modes of communication, including drawings, texts and built works. These communications depend upon each other and combine to reproduce architecture as a specialized system of communication. The book explores how this system of communication forms a unique subsystem of society that co-evolves with other important autopoietic subsystems like art, science, politics and the economy.

The ???rst of two volumes that together present a comprehensive account of architecture's autopoiesis, The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture introduces the theoretical framework and traces the historical process of architecture's differentiation within its societal environment: its elevation above the craft of building, its emancipation from religion and politics, as well as its separation from art and science. On this basis Schumacher insists on the necessity of maintaining disciplinary autonomy and argues for its distinct demarcation in relation to art and engineering. Architecture's dependency on theory is emphasized and its internal separation into the avant-garde and the mainstream is explained. Styles are theorized as design research programmes that constitute architectural history as a progression of cycles of innovation that upgrade architecture to adapt to the ongoing evolution of society. This initial volume ends with the clari???cation of architecture's underlying societal function and raison d'être. The second volume completes the analysis of the discourse and further proposes a new agenda for contemporary architecture in response to the challenges and opportunities that confront architectural design within the context of current societal and technological developments.

Zusammenfassung
Take a theoretical approach to architecture with The Autopoiesis of Architecture, which presents the topic as a discipline with its own unique logic. Architecture's conception of itself is addressed as well as its development within wider contemporary society.

Author Patrik Schumacher offers innovative treatment that enriches architectural theory with a coordinated arsenal of concepts facilitating both detailed analysis and insightful comparisons with other domains, such as art, science and politics. He explores how the various modes of communication comprising architecture depend upon each other, combine, and form a unique subsystem of society that co-evolves with other important autopoietic subsystems like art, science, politics and the economy.

The first of two volumes that together present a comprehensive account of architecture's autopoiesis, this book elaborates the theory of architecture?s autopoeisis in 8 parts, 50 sections and 200 chapters. Each of the 50 sections poses a thesis drawing a central message from the insights articulated within the respective section. The 200 chapters are gathering and sorting the accumulated intelligence of the discipline according to the new conceptual framework adopted, in order to catalyze and elaborate the new formulations and insights that are then encapsulated in the theses. However, while the theoretical work in the text of the chapters relies on the rigorous build up of a new theoretical language, the theses are written in ordinary language ? with the theoretical concepts placed in brackets. The full list of the 50 theses affords a convenient summary printed as appendix at the end of the book.

The second volume completes the analysis of the discourse and further proposes a new agenda for contemporary architecture in response to the challenges and opportunities that confront architectural design within the context of current societal and technological developments.



Inhalt

Preface xi

0 Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System 1

0.1 Architecture as a System of Communications 1

0.2 A Unified Theory of Architecture 4

0.3 Functional vs Causal Explanations 14

0.4 The Quest for Comprehensiveness 17

0.5 The Premises Imported from Social Systems Theory 19

0.6 Architecture's Place within Society 25

1 Architectural Theory 29

1.1 The Unity of Architecture 29

1.1.1 Architectural System-formation and Self-regulation 30

1.2 The Evolution of Architecture 32

1.2.1 Architectural Theory as Mechanism of Selection 33

1.3 The Necessity of Theory 35

1.3.1 The Function of Architectural Theory 36

1.3.2 Types of Theories 39

1.3.3 The Necessity to Reflect Architecture's Societal raison d'être 47

1.3.4 Super-theories 54

1.3.5 The Theory of Architectural Autopoiesis as Domain-specific Super-theory 58

1.3.6 From Deconstruction to the Programme of Critical Theory 62

2 The Historical Emergence of Architecture 71

2.1 The Emergence of Architecture as Self-referential System 72

2.1.1 Inside-descriptions vs Outside-descriptions 72

2.1.2 Function Systems 74

2.1.3 The Historical Crystallization of Architecture 77

2.2 Foundation and Refoundation of Architecture 81

2.2.1 Autonomization: The Origin of the Discipline in the Italian Renaissance 81

2.2.2 The Refoundation of the Discipline as Modern Architecture 87

2.2.3 The Exclusive Competency and Universal Scope of Modern Architecture 89

2.2.4 The Liberation from Traditional Formal Constraints 91

2.2.5 The Switch from Edifice to Space 93

2.3 Avant-garde vs Mainstream 95

2.3.1 A Prerequisite for Evolution 97

2.3.2 The Autonomy of the Avant-garde 99

2.3.3 Communications between Avant-garde and Mainstream 102

2.3.4 The Reciprocal Dependency between Avant-garde and Mainstream 107

2.3.5 The Time Structure of the Avant-garde Process: Cumulative vs Revolutionary Periods 110

2.3.6 Concrete Exemplars vs Abstract Principles 115

2.3.7 Revolution and Philosophy 120

2.3.8 Latent Utopias vs the Utopian Ambitions of the Historical Avant-garde 123

2.3.9 Retroactive Manifestos 129

2.4 Architectural Research 132

2.4.1 Architectural Research as Avant-garde Design Research 133

2.4.2 Architecture Schools as Laboratories 138

2.5 The Necessity of Demarcation 144

2.5.1 The Differentiation of Art and Architecture 146

2.5.2 The Differentiation of Science and Architecture 155

2.5.3 The Differentiation of Architecture and Engineering 160

2.5.4 The Rationality of Demarcation 163

2.5.5 The Specificity of Architecture within the Design Disciplines 166

3 Architecture as Autopoietic System Operations, Structures and Processes 171

3.1 Architectural Autopoiesis within Functionally Differentiated Society 177

3.1.1 Niklas Luhmann's Theory of Modern Society 177

3.1.2 Third Order Observation 182

3.1.3 Codes and Media 183

3.1.4 The Concept of Social Autopoiesis 184

3.2 The Autonomy of Architecture 188

3.2.1 Openness through Closure 190

3.2.2 Irritations 193

3.2.3 Communication Structures 195

3.3 The Elemental Operation of Architecture 197

3.3.1 Design Decisions 199

3.3.2 Network-dependency of Elemental Operations 200

3.3.3 Design Decisions and External Demands 202

3.4 The Lead-distinction within Architecture and the Design Disciplines 204

3.4.1 The Primacy of Distinctions 205

3.4.2 Form vs Function as the Lead-distinction within the Design Disciplines 207

3.4.3 The Double Reference of the Design Disciplines 209

3.5 The Codification of Architecture 215

3.5.1 Binary Codes 217

3.5.2 Utility and Beauty as the Double Code of Architecture 219

3.5.3 Polycontexturality 224

3....

Produktinformationen

Titel: The Autopoiesis of Architecture
Untertitel: A New Framework for Architecture
Autor:
EAN: 9781119989943
ISBN: 978-1-119-98994-3
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Architektur
Anzahl Seiten: 478
Veröffentlichung: 20.04.2011
Jahr: 2011
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 3.5 MB