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Fats in Food Technology

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This is a book about the roles and behaviors of fats in food technology and the benefits that they impart to consumers. It is abou... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

This is a book about the roles and behaviors of fats in food technology and the benefits that they impart to consumers. It is about fats that are naturally present in foods or fats that have been added to improve physical and chemical properties. Now in a revised and updated second edition, the book contains useful information on the market issues that have driven change and the disciplines that have helped to regulate the trade and use of fats and oils in food technology. This volume will be useful to anyone in industry and research establishments who has an interest in the technology of fat-containing food products.

Dr Kanes K. Rajah, Director, Centre for Entrepreneurship, University of Greenwich and Management and Food Technology Consultant, Klondyke Management Consultants, London, UK

Autorentext

Professor Kanes K Rajah is Dean of the School of Business and Entrepreneurship, Royal Agricultural University, Cirencester, UK and Management Food Consultant.



Klappentext

Fats are present in some form in the vast majority of processed foods we consume, as well as in many 'natural' products. Changes in consumer behaviour, centered around an increased emphasis on healthy food consumption, mean that it is more important than ever for food scientists to understand the properties, roles and behaviours that fats play in food and in diets.

Fats in Food Technology, Second Edition is an in-depth examination of the roles and behaviours of fats in food technology and the benefits that they impart to consumers. It considers both fats that are naturally present in foods (such as milk fat in cheese) and fats that have been added to improve physical, chemical and organoleptic properties (like cocoa butter in chocolate). Newly revised and updated, the book contains useful information on the market issues that have driven change and the disciplines that have helped to regulate the trade and use of fats and oils in food technology. Drawing on the recent literature as well as the personal R&D experiences of the authors, the book highlights those areas where potential efficiencies in processing and economy in the cost of raw materials can be made. Issues concerning health, diet and lifestyle are covered in dedicated chapters.

This book will be useful to anyone in industry and research establishments who has an interest in the technology of fat-containing food products, including scientists in the dairy, spreads, bakery, confectionery and wider food industries, as well those involved in the production of edible oils.



Inhalt

List of contributors xi

Preface xiii

1 Physical properties of fats in food 1
Kiyotaka Sato and Satoru Ueno

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Basic physical properties of fat crystals 2

1.2.1 Polymorphic structures of fats 2

1.2.2 Polymorphic crystallisation of fats 7

1.2.3 Polymorphic transformation of fats 13

1.2.4 Phase behaviour of fat mixtures 17

1.2.5 Microstructure, texture and rheological properties 20

1.3 Structurefunction relations in food fats 22

1.3.1 Fats in bulk phase 22

1.3.2 Fats in oil-in-water emulsions 26

1.3.3 Fats in water-in-oil emulsions 30

1.4 Conclusion 32

References 33

2 Bakery fats 39
Paul Wassell

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Production of margarine and shortening 40

2.3 Crystallisation behaviour 42

2.4 Processing 47

2.5 Plastic bakery fats 48

2.5.1 Short pastry 50

2.5.2 Cake 53

2.5.3 Puff pastry 57

2.6 The influence of emulsifiers in baking 60

2.7 Control of quality in margarine and shortening manufacture 62

2.8 Liquid shortenings 65

2.9 Fluid shortenings 66

2.10 Powdered fats, flaked fats and fat powders 67

2.10.1 Methods of manufacture 67

2.10.2 Applications of fat powders and powdered fats 70

2.11 Fat in biscuit baking 72

2.11.1 The function of fats in biscuits 72

2.11.2 Biscuit filling creams 74

2.11.3 Spray fats 75

2.11.4 Fat bloom 76

2.12 Conclusion 76

Acknowledgement 77

References 77

3 Water continuous emulsions 83
H.M. Premlal Ranjith

3.1 Introduction 83

3.1.1 The structure of water continuous emulsions 84

3.1.2 Milk fat globule structure 85

3.2 Preparation of water continuous emulsions 87

3.2.1 Dairy creams 87

3.2.2 Recombined creams 92

3.2.3 Ice-cream mix 95

3.2.4 Heat treatment of emulsions 102

3.2.5 Preparation of dressings 116

3.3 Factors affecting water continuous emulsions 118

3.3.1 Emulsion stability of high-fat creams 120

3.3.2 Defects in ice cream 127

3.3.3 Defects in mayonnaise and salad dressing 130

References 130

4 Oil modification processes 133
Albert J. Dijkstra

4.1 Introduction 133

4.2 Hydrogenation 134

4.2.1 Kinetics and mechanism 135

4.2.2 Industrial hydrogenation processes 139

4.3 Interesterification 144

4.3.1 Chemical catalysis 145

4.3.2 Enzymatic catalysis 149

4.3.3 Interesterification products 151

4.4 Fractionation 151

4.4.1 Fat crystallisation theory 153

4.4.2 Industrial practice 155

4.4.3 Fractionation products 159

4.5 Discussion 161

References 162

5 Fats for chocolate and sugar confectionery 169
Geoff Talbot

5.1 Introduction 169

5.2 Production and properties 170

5.2.1 Cocoa butter and milk fat 170

5.2.2 Symmetrical SOS-type CBAs: cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) 175

5.2.3 High-trans-type CBAs 178

5.2.4 Low- or zero-trans non-lauric CBAs 180

5.2.5 Lauric-type CBAs 181

5.2.6 Comparison and compatibility 182

5.3 Legislation and regulatory aspects 186

5.3.1 Legislation 186

5.3.2 Adulteration and its detection 189

5.4 Moulded bar and coating applications 191

5.4.1 Chocolate 191

5.4.2 Compound chocolate 192

5.5 Filling applications 195

5.5.1 Fat-based fillings 195

5.5.2 Toffees and other sugar confectionery 198

5.5.3 Truffles 199

Produktinformationen

Titel: Fats in Food Technology
Editor:
EAN: 9781118788769
ISBN: 978-1-118-78876-9
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley-Blackwell
Genre: Sonstiges
Anzahl Seiten: 385
Veröffentlichung: 07.02.2014
Jahr: 2014
Auflage: 2. Aufl.
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 14.8 MB