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Quantum Nanoelectronics

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A tutorial coverage of electronic technology, starting from the basics of condensed matter and quantum physics. Experienced author... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

A tutorial coverage of electronic technology, starting from the basics of condensed matter and quantum physics. Experienced author Ed Wolf presents established and novel devices like Field Effect and Single Electron Transistors, and leads the reader up to applications in data storage, quantum computing, and energy harvesting.
Intended to be self-contained for students with two years of calculus-based college physics, with corresponding fundamental knowledge in mathematics, computing and chemistry.

Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic University in New York City. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. His research activities cover solid state physics, scanning tunneling microscopy, electron tunneling spectroscopy and superconductivity. Edward Wolf holds industrial and academic appointments. The former Director of the National Science Foundation is Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently.
In 2007, Professor Wolf was honored with the 'Jacobs Excellence in Education Award' by the Polytechnical University of New York.

Autorentext
Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic University in New York City. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. His research activities cover solid state physics, scanning tunneling microscopy, electron tunneling spectroscopy and superconductivity. Edward Wolf holds industrial and academic appointments. The former Director of the National Science Foundation is Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently.
In 2007, Professor Wolf was honored with the "Jacobs Excellence in Education Award" by the Polytechnical University of New York.

Klappentext
'Quantum Nanoelectronics' is the first textbook to handle important growth areas not covered in existing books, including adiabatic quantum computing, nanoelectronic aspects of ink-printed thin film solar cells, nanostructured electrodes, solar water splitting, and convenient hydrogen storage, thereby suggesting profitable new directions for nanoelectronic technology. Expanded tutorial coverage is provided for aspects of molecular electronics, from the basics of electronic conduction through chemical bonds to a sixteen-bit computing device as shown in the cover illustration. The interested reader, either a student or a professional interested in a new career direction, is encouraged to use simple theoretical models and to return to the entrepreneurial approach of the pioneers in the Moore's Law revolution.

Cover graphics: Anirban Bandyopadhyay

Leseprobe
1
Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology

Electronic devices are central to modern technology. Silicon chips are everywhere, including cars and appliances, and have transformed computation, information processing, and communications, culminating in the modern Internet. The silicon revolution started with the transistor, leading to the integrated circuit, and to the Pentium chip. A related semiconductor device, the solid-state junction laser, in conjunction with the optical fiber, has led to cheap, reliable virtually instantaneous worldwide communication. Outsourcing, globalization, and the "flat world" have been enabled by these technical advances.

The assumption of this book is that this revolution is not over, but rather is entering a new phase. The era of microelectronics is opening to a future of nanoelectronic technology.

The central feature of the silicon revolution has been the miniaturization of transistors and their grouping into integrated circuits, which now contain billions of identical transistor elements. In very large scale integration (VLSI), a whole computer can exist on a square centimeter of silicon. Smaller transistors are cheaper, more are available on a single chip, and operate more quickly, now as fast as 3 billion steps per second. Gordon Moore, a founder of the Intel Corporation, noted long ago that the number of transistors per chip, roughly one square centimeter, tended to double every 18 months or so as the technology improved and larger markets appeared. "Moore's law" has seen the transistor count increase from hundreds to hundreds of millions! Chips containing 0.8 billion transistors on roughly one square centimeter are being produced as described in Chapter 7 [1].

The key to this advance has been the "scaling" to smaller size of the active cells, containing field effect transistors (FETs) and other devices. Scaling has taken silicon electronics into the nanometer domain, where it now is approaching its limit, set by the size of atoms. The smallest dimension in the FET has been the thickness of the thermally grown silicon dioxide insulator for the gate electrode. It has long been recognized that scaling will work only down to thicknesses large compared to the silicon and oxygen atomic radii in the SiO2, needed to preserve the desired insulating property. Intel Corporation [1] has abandoned the scaled silicon dioxide to insulate the gate electrode, in favor of deposited "high dielectric constant" oxides based on the heavy metals hafnium and zirconium. Literally, the thermally grown silica, forced thinner and thinner by the scaling formula, contained only a handful of silicon atoms across its thickness, allowing electrons to "leak" through by the quantum mechanical tunneling effect.

A second imperative for a new era in nanoelectronics comes from the limit of patterning resolution, limited by wavelength of the light used to imprint patterned features onto the chip. The smallest feature size in the newest generation of silicon devices is 45 nm, achieved by artful use of light of 193 nm wavelength.

The equipment for producing and applying the patterning light is a leading cost in a fabrication facility, and reducing the wavelength of patterning light has become increasingly difficult and costly. Energy conservation is also a driving force for technology change. Large computing installations consume megawatts of power. Laptop computers run hot and their batteries frequently need recharging.

A third indicator, an opportunity for change, comes from new computing technologies. One of these, the Josephson junction-based "rapid single flux quantum" technology, has logic circuits that are wholly superconducting and thus use less energy. An entirely new concept is "quantum computing," in which the binary bit is replaced by a "qubit" that can take on more than two values, which is inherently faster in s

Inhalt
Ch. 1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology
Ch. 2 From Electronics to Nanoelectronics: particles, waves and Schrodinger Equation
Ch. 3 Quantum Description of atoms and molecules
Ch. 4 Quantum Description of metals, semiconductors, junction devices
Ch. 5 Some newer building blocks for nanoelectronic devices
Ch. 6 Fabrication and Characterization Methods for nanoelectronics
Ch. 7 The field effect transistor FET: size limits and alternative forms
Ch. 8 Devices based on electron tunneling, resonant tunnel diodes
Ch. 9 Single electron transistors, molecular electronics, hybrid electronics
Ch. 10 Devices based on electron spin and ferromagnetism
Ch. 11 Qubits vs. binary bits in a Quantum Computer
Ch. 12 Applications of nanoelectronic technology to energy issues
Ch. 13 Summary and brief comment on the future of nanoelectronic technics

Produktinformationen

Titel: Quantum Nanoelectronics
Untertitel: An Introduction to Electronic Nanotechnology and Quantum Computing
Autor:
EAN: 9783527665389
ISBN: 978-3-527-66538-9
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley-Vch
Genre: Sonstiges
Anzahl Seiten: 472
Veröffentlichung: 20.11.2015
Jahr: 2015
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 4.2 MB