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A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking

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A thoroughly updated introduction to the concepts, methods, and standards of critical thinking, A Practical Guide to Critical Thin... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

A thoroughly updated introduction to the concepts, methods, and standards of critical thinking, A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition is a unique presentation of the formal strategies used when thinking through reasons and arguments in many areas of expertise. Pursuing an interdisciplinary approach to critical thinking, the book offers a broad conception of critical thinking and explores the practical relevance to conducting research across fields such as, business, education, and the biological sciences.

Applying rigor when necessary, the Second Edition maintains an informal approach to the fundamental core concepts of critical thinking. With practical strategies for defining, analyzing, and evaluating reasons and arguments, the book illustrates how the concept of an argument extends beyond philosophical roots into experimentation, testing, measurement, and policy development and assessment. Featuring plenty of updated exercises for a wide range of subject areas, A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition also includes:
  • Numerous real-world examples from many fields of research, which reflect the applicability of critical thinking in everyday life
  • New topical coverage, including the nature of reasons, assertion and supposing, narrow and broad definitions, circumstantial reasons, and reasoning about causal claims
  • Selected answers to various exercises to provide readers with instantaneous feedback to support and extend the lessons

A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition is an excellent textbook for courses on critical thinking and logic at the undergraduate and graduate levels as well as an appropriate reference for anyone with a general interest in critical thinking skills.



David A. Hunter, PhD, is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Ryerson University, Canada. He has published numerous journal articles in his areas of research interest, which include the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mind, epistemology, and critical thinking.



Autorentext

David A. Hunter, PhD, is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Ryerson University, Canada. He has published numerous journal articles in his areas of research interest, which include the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mind, epistemology, and critical thinking.

Klappentext

Praise for the First Edition

"a well-structured path of increasing difficulty, disseminated by useful examples and study cases taken from a variety of disciplines as well as from common situations."
Zentralblatt MATH

A thoroughly updated introduction to the concepts, methods, and standards of critical thinking, A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition is a unique presentation of the formal strategies used when thinking through reasons and arguments in many areas of expertise. Pursuing an interdisciplinary approach to critical thinking, the book offers a broad conception of critical thinking and explores the practical relevance to conducting research across business, education, and the biological sciences.

Applying rigor when necessary, the Second Edition maintains an informal approach to the fundamental core concepts of critical thinking. With practical strategies for defining, analyzing, and evaluating reasons and arguments, the book illustrates how the concept of an argument extends beyond philosophical roots into experimentation, testing, measurement, and policy development and assessment. Featuring plenty of updated exercises for a wide range of subject areas, A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition also includes:

  • Numerous real-world examples from many fields of research, which reflect the applicability of critical thinking in everyday life
  • New topical coverage, including the nature of reasons, assertion and supposing, narrow and broad definitions, circumstantial reasons, and reasoning about causal claims
  • Selected answers intended to provide readers with instantaneous feedback on the exercises to support and extend the lessons

A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition is an excellent textbook for courses on critical thinking and logic at the undergraduate and graduate levels as well as an appropriate reference for anyone with a general interest in critical thinking skills.

Inhalt

Preface xiii

Preface to First Edition xv

Note to Instructors xvii

1 The Nature and Value of Critical Thinking 1

1.1 The Nature of Critical Thinking 2

Exercise 1 5

1.2 Critical Thinking and Knowledge 6

Exercise 2 6

1.3 Knowledge and Truth 7

1.3.1 Realism Relativism and Nihilism 8

1.3.2 Relativism and the Argument from Disagreement 11

1.4 Knowledge and Belief 14

1.5 Knowledge and Justification 16

1.5.1 Emotional and Pragmatic Reasons 17

1.5.2 Epistemic Reasons 18

1.5.3 Emotions and Evidence 20

1.6 Good Reasons are Sufficient and Acceptable 22

1.7 When Evidence Conflicts 23

Exercise 3 26

1.8 Critical Thinking and Personal Autonomy 27

1.8.1 Belief and Prejudice 27

1.8.2 Making Up Your Own Mind 28

Chapter Exercises 30

1.9 Critical Thinking in Practice 32

1.9.1 Critical Thinking Mistakes 32

1.9.2 Critical Thinking Strategies 34

1.9.3 From Theory to Practice: Applying What We Have Learned 34

2 Clarifying Meaning 37

2.1 The Place of Definitions in Critical Thinking 37

2.2 Assertion 39

Exercise 1 41

2.3 The Assertion Test 41

Exercise 2 45

2.4 Constructing and Evaluating Definitions 46

2.5 Give a Slogan 48

Exercise 3 51

2.6 Expand on the Slogan 51

2.7 Give Examples 52

2.8 Identify Contrasting Ideas 52

Exercise 4 53

2.9 Thinking Critically about Frameworks 54

Exercise 5 56

2.10 Clarifying Beliefs and Problems 56

Exercise 6 60

2.11 Technical Definitions 60

2.12 Meaning in Advertisements 61

Exercise 7 63

2.13 Critical Thinking in Practice 64

2.13.1 Critical Thinking Mistakes 64

2.13.2 Critical Thinking Strategies 65

2.13.3 From Theory to Practice: Applying What We Have Learned 65

3 Sufficient Reasons 67

3.1 Critical Thinking and Arguments 67

Exercise 1 71

3.2 Identifying Premises and Conclusions 71

Exercise 2 76

3.3 Dependent and Independent Premises 78

3.3.1 The Words Test 78

3.3.2 The False Premise Test 79

Exercise 3 82

3.4 Sub-Arguments 83

Exercise 4 85

3.5 Evaluating Logical Support 86

Exercise 5 89

3.6 Missing Premises 90

Exercise 6 91

3.7 Piling on Independent Premises 92

3.8 Critical Thinking in Practice 94

3.8.1 Critical Thinking Strategies 94

3.8.2 From Theory to Practice: Applying What We Have Learned 94

4 Acceptable Reasons 97

4.1 Reliable Sources 99

4.2 Undermining and Overriding Evidence 101

Exercise 1 103

4.3 Observation 104

4.4 Memory 106

Exercise 2 107

4.5 Testimony 107

4.5.1 Appropriate Testimony 108

4.5.2 Trained Testimony 109

4.5.3 Informed Testimony 110

4.5.4 Unbiased Testimony 110

4.6 Advertising 112

4.7 News Reports 113

Exercise 3 116

4.8 Measurement 117

4.8.1 Measurement Consistency 119

4.8.2 Measurement Precision 120

4.9 Surveys 122

Exercise 4 126

4.10 Critical Thinking in Practice 127

4.10.1 Critical Thinking Mistakes 127

4.10.2 Critical Thinking Strategies 128

4.10.3 From Theory to Practice: Applying What We Have Learned 128

5 Reasoning about Alternatives and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 131

5.1 Reasoning about Alternatives 132

5.2 The Meaning of Disjunctions 133

5.3 Reasoning by Denying a Disjunct 133

5.4 False Disjunctions 135

5.5 When are Disjunctions Acceptable? 136

5.6 Exclusive Disjunctions 137

5.7 How to Criticize Reasoning about Alternatives 139

Exercise 1 140

5.8 Reasoning about Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 141

5.9 The Meaning of Conditionals 142

Exercise 2 146

5.10 Valid Reasoning about Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 148

5.11 Invalid Forms of Reasoning about Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 151

5.12 Making Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Explicit 155

Exercise 3 156

5.13 When are Claims about Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Acceptable? 157

5.14 Reasoning with Definitions and Standards 158

5.15 Necessary and Sufficient Causal Conditions 162

5.16 Reasoning with Causal Claims 165

5.17 Discovering Causal Conditions 165

5.17.1 Discovering a Necessary Causal Condition 166

5.17.2 Discovering a Sufficient Causal Condition 168

5.17.3 Discovering Necessary and Sufficient Causal Conditions 169

5.17.4 Concomitant Variation 170

5.17.5 Experimenting and Simulating 170

Exercise 4 172

5.18 Critical Thinking in Practice 175

5.18.1 Critical Thinking Mistakes 175

5.18.2 Critical Thinking St...

Produktinformationen

Titel: A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking
Untertitel: Deciding What to Do and Believe
Autor:
EAN: 9781118583142
ISBN: 978-1-118-58314-2
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Philosophie
Anzahl Seiten: 248
Veröffentlichung: 15.10.2014
Jahr: 2014
Auflage: 2. Aufl.
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 0.3 MB