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Pollution Control Instrumentation for Oil and Effluents

  • Couverture cartonnée
  • 456 Nombre de pages
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The scale of global transportation of oil cargoes has led to a demand for increased control and international legislation to comba... Lire la suite
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The scale of global transportation of oil cargoes has led to a demand for increased control and international legislation to combat accidental and operational dis charges of oily wastes and residues at sea. Since 1954 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has provided the international forum for the development of several proposals for controlling oil pollution from shipping, which culminated in the 1973 International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships and the 1978 Protocol relating to this Convention, together known as MARPOL 73178. Apart from the requirement for improvements in the constructional design of tankers, and operational procedures to enhance both safety and pollution control in the carriage of oil and other noxious substances at sea, MARPOL 73178 called for the extensive installation of oil discharge monitoring, control and separating equipment on board ships and offshore platforms. The 1973 Convention came into force in October 1983, twelve months after sufficient countries had ratified it and agreed to abide by the international rules and regulations. As a result, a large number of systems have now been installed and are operational. The demand to separate oil from water to give an oil content of less than 15 parts per million (ppm) and measure this on-line in an extremely difficult environment has pro vided a considerable impetus for the development of novel and robust instrumen tation and systems.


1 Introduction.- 1.1 Background.- 1.2 The role of IMO and the progress of Marine Pollution Legislation.- 1.2.1 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954.- 1.2.2 MARPOL 73/78.- 1.3 Oil Sources and Marine Transportation for Hydrocarbons.- 1.4 Operational Discharges at Sea.- 1.4.1 Tankers.- 1.4.2 Cargo Ships and Tankers.- 1.4.3 Other Operational Discharges.- 1.5 Fate and Environmental Impact of Oil Discharges at Sea.- 1.6 Scope of the Book.- References.- 2 Oil pollution control and international legislation.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 The Development of MARPOL 73/78.- 2.3 Operational Procedures.- 2.3.1 Load-on-Top (LOT) Tank Cleaning System.- 2.3.2 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks (DCBT) (also referred to as CBT).- 2.3.3 Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBT).- 2.3.4 Crude Oil Washing (COW).- 2.4 Bilge and Fuel Oil Discharges.- 2.5 Reception Facilities.- 2.6 Enforcement.- References.- 3 Technical requirements of the IMO international performance and test specifications for shipboard oil pollution instrumentation for oily water separation monitoring and control.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Performance and Test Specifications concerning Oily Water Separators and Oil Filtering Equipment.- 3.2.1 Terminology.- 3.2.2 Preamble and General Provisions.- 3.2.3 A.393(X)-Test Specifications for Oily Water Separating Equipment.- 3.2.4 Resolution A.444(XI).- 3.3 Performance and Test Specifications for Oil Content Meters.- 3.3.1 Resolution A.393(X).- 3.4 The Control System.- 3.4.1 Regulations.- 3.4.2 Early Resolutions.- 3.4.3 Resolution A.586(14).- 3.5 Overboard Discharge Arrangements with Part Flow Presentation.- Appendix 3.1 Unified Interpretation-Annex II MARPOL 73/78.- 4 Oil content monitors-a technical appraisal of the state of the art.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Practical Considerations.- 4.1.2 Monitor Types.- 4.1.3 System Requirements.- 4.2 Techniques for Measurement of Oil-in-Water.- 4.2.1 Ultraviolet Fluorescence.- 4.2.2 Ultraviolet Absorption.- 4.2.3 Photo-Optical Detection and Gas Evaporation.- 4.2.4 Solvent Extraction-Infrared Absorption.- 4.2.5 All-optical Fibre Solutions.- 4.2.6 Direct IR Absorption in Water.- 4.2.7 Scatter and Turbidity.- 4.2.8 Intelligent Turbidity (Light Scatter) Measurements.- 4.3 Shipboard Installation of Monitor Systems.- 4.3.1 Ballast Monitors.- 4.3.2 Bilge Monitor.- 4.4 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Problems of testing oil content monitors to the MARPOL 73/78 specifications.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 General Test Rig Requirements and Operational Problems.- 5.2.1 Pipework.- 5.2.2 Flow.- 5.2.3 Pressure.- 5.2.4 Injection.- 5.2.5 Burettes and Heavy Oils.- 5.2.6 Water.- 5.2.7 Oil Fouling Tank (i. e. for Test 3.2.9 in A.393(X)).- 5.2.8 Particulate Test Equipment (i. e. Test 3.2.10 in A.393(X)).- 5.2.9 Salinity Test.- 5.2.10 Oil Droplet Size Variation (Test 3.2.11).- 5.2.11 Temperature Variations (Test 3.2.13).- 5.2.12 Pressure and Flow Regulation (Test 3.2.14).- 5.2.13 Utilities (Test 3.2.15).- 5.2.14 Long Term Drift (Test 3.2.16).- 5.2.15 Shut-down (Test 3.2.17).- 5.2.16 Additional Instrumentation.- 5.2.17 Waste Products.- 5.3 Monitor Tests.- 5.3.1 Ballast Monitor (0-1000 ppm).- 5.3.2 Bilge Monitor (0-100 ppm).- 5.3.3 Bilge Alarm (15 ppm alarm-no recorder).- 5.4 Grab Samples and Infrared Analysis.- 5.4.1 Sampling.- 5.4.2 Validation Test on the IMO A.393(X) method for the Determination of Oil Content.- 5.5 The Full Control Systems and Functional Testing.- References.- 6 Oil content monitors-a review of available equipment.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 General Review.- 6.3 Installation.- 6.4 Available Monitor Systems.- 6.4.1 Babcock-Bristol Ltd. (Croydon, UK).- 6.4.2 Biospherics Ine (Maryland, USA).- 6.4.3 Quantek (a Facet subsidiary) (USA).- 6.4.4 Horiba Ltd. (Kyoto, Japan).- 6.4.5 ITT Oilcon (Netherlands, UK, Japan).- 6.4.6 Monitek (USA).- 6.4.7 Oili-AEG Telefunken (Finland-W. Germany).- 6.4.8 Salen and Wicander (Sweden).- 6.4.9 SERES (Les-Milles, France).- 6.4.10 Yamatake-Honeywell (Tokyo, Japan);Shimadzu Seisakusho Ltd. (Kyoto, Japan); Fellow-Kogyo Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan).- 6.5 Shipboard Experience.- 6.5.1 Ballast Monitors.- 6.5.2 Bilge Monitors.- 6.6 Flowmeters.- 6.6.1 Installation.- 6.6.2 Flowmeters-Analysis.- References.- Appendix 6.1.- 7 A technical review of the principles of oil-water separation.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Principles of Oil-Water Separation.- 7.2.1 Definitions.- 7.2.2 Generation of Oily Water Mixtures.- 7.2.3 Stabilisation.- 7.2.4 Separation.- 7.3 Oil-Water Separation Technology.- 7.3.1 Gravity Separation.- 7.3.2 Enhanced Gravity Separation.- 7.3.3 Enhanced Coalescene.- 7.4 Summary.- References.- 8 Problems of laboratory testing oil-water separators.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Resolution A.393(X)196 8.2.1 Technical Specification-Part II of Annex to A.3 93(X).- 8.2.1 Technical Specification-Part II of Annex to A.3 93(X).- 8.2.2 'Test Specification' (from Part II of the Annex to A.393(X)).- 8.2.3 'Installation Requirements' (Part II of the Annex to A.393(X)).- 8.3 Resolution A.444(XI).- 8.4 The Test Rig.- 8.4.1 Capacity.- 8.4.2 Layout of Test Rig.- 8.4.3 Test Equipment.- 8.4.4 Other Test Facilities.- References.- 9 Technical requirements of the IMO international performance and test specification concerning oily water separators and process units.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Separation Processes-The Practical Problems.- 9.3 Separator Systems.- 9.3.1 Alexander Esplen (UK) (COMYN).- 9.3.2 Alsthom-Atlantique (France).- 9.3.3 SEREP (France)-formerly also Butterworth (US) Units.- 9.3.4 Facet (Netherlands, Italy, Spain, UK, USA).- 9.3.5 Heishin (Japan).- 9.3.6 Hodge Separators (UK).- 9.3.7 Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (FRG).- 9.3.8 Keene Corporation (US)/Oil Pollution Engineering Co. Ltd (Japan).- 9.3.9 National Fluid Separators, Inc. (USA).- 9.3.10 Salen and Wincander (Sweden).- 9.3.11 RWO (FRG).- 9.3.12 Separation and Recovery Systems Inc (USA).- 9.3.13 Stork Services (Netherlands).- 9.4 Conclusions.- References.- 10 Interface detection.- 10.1 Introduction and Requirements.- 10.2 Test Specification for Oil/Water Interface Detector (MEPC XIII/9 Annex 3).- 10.3 Interface and Level Detection, System Implications.- 10.4 Available Interface Detectors.- 10.4.1 Ultrasonic.- 10.4.2 Electrolytic.- 10.5 Conclusions-and the Future.- Appendix 10.1 Resolution MEPC.5(XIII) Annex 3 specification for oil/water interface detector.- Appendix 10.2 Department of Trade Certificate of Inspection and Tests: The Bestobell-Mobrey 'Sensali' Oil/Water Interface Detector.- 11 Large scale treatment of oil-contaminated water-reception facilities.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Sources of Oily Water: Quantities and Characteristics.- 11.2.1 Ballast Water.- 11.2.2 Ballast Water Characteristics.- 11.2.3 Fuel Oil Sludge and Bilge Oil.- 11.2.4 Refineries.- 11.3 Available Techniques for the Treatment of Oily Water.- 11.3.1 Primary Treatment.- 11.3.2 Secondary Treatment.- 11.3.3 Tertiary Treatment.- 11.4 Environmental Impact of Oily Water Discharges.- 11.5 Examples of Different Reception Facilities.- 11.5.1 Oily Waste-Water Treatment Plant in Dalian New Port.- 11.5.2 Small Floating Reception Facilities (PRC).- 11.5.3 Large Floating Reception Facilities (Guangzhou).- 11.5.4 Tank Washing Facility (Lisnave-Portugal).- 11.5.5 Combined Refinery and Ballast Water Reception Facilities.- 11.6 Discussion.- References.- 12 Methods of disposal of recovered oil and sludge.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Methods of Oil Recovery from Operational Activities.- 12.3 Disposal of Recovered Oil310 12.3.1 Removal of Water.- 12.4 Sludge Disposal.- 12.4.1 Landfill.- 12.4.2 Incineration.- 12.4.3 Land Farming.- 12.4.4 Conclusions.- References.- 13 Offshore production platforms.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Operational Discharges from Platforms.- 13.2.1 Drilling Muds and Cuttings.- 13.2.2 Production Water.- 13.2.3 Displacement Water (Ballast).- 13.2.4 Platform Drainage.- 13.3 Controls.- 13.4 Production Water Separation Processes.- 13.4.1 The Overall System.- 13.4.2 Enhanced Gravity Separation.- 13.4.3 Hydrocyclones and On-Line Monitoring.- 13.5 Separation of Displacement Water and Platform Drainage.- 13.6 Discussion.- References.- Appendix A Resolution A.393(X).- Appendix B Resolution A.441(XI).- Appendix C Resolution A.586(14).

Informations sur le produit

Titre: Pollution Control Instrumentation for Oil and Effluents
Code EAN: 9789401079518
ISBN: 940107951X
Format: Couverture cartonnée
Editeur: Springer Netherlands
nombre de pages: 456
Poids: 686g
Taille: H235mm x B155mm x T24mm
Année: 2011
Auflage: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1987