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Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics

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This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emi... Lire la suite
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Description

This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performance- and reliability-impacting factors such as temperature, stress and material instabilities. Further key features include: * practical design guidelines that consider also reliability related effects, key laser robustness factors, basic laser fabrication and packaging issues; * detailed discussion of diagnostic investigations of diode lasers, the fundamentals of the applied approaches and techniques, many of them pioneered by the author to be fit-for-purpose and novel in the application; * systematic insight into laser degradation modes such as catastrophic optical damage, and a wide range of technologies to increase the optical strength of diode lasers; * coverage of basic concepts and techniques of laser reliability engineering with details on a standard commercial high power laser reliability test program. Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics reflects the extensive expertise of the author in the diode laser field both as a top scientific researcher as well as a key developer of high-power highly reliable devices. With invaluable practical advice, this new reference book is suited to practising researchers in diode laser technologies, and to postgraduate engineering students. Dr. Peter W. Epperlein is Technology Consultant with his own semiconductor technology consulting business Pwe-PhotonicsElectronics-IssueResolution in the UK. He looks back at a thirty years career in cutting edge photonics and electronics industries with focus on emerging technologies, both in global and start-up companies, including IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Agilent Technologies, Philips/NXP, Essient Photonics and IBM/JDSU Laser Enterprise. He holds Pre-Dipl. (B.Sc.), Dipl. Phys. (M.Sc.) and Dr. rer. nat. (Ph.D.) degrees in physics, magna cum laude, from the University of Stuttgart, Germany. Dr. Epperlein is an internationally recognized expert in compound semiconductor and diode laser technologies. He has accomplished R&D in many device areas such as semiconductor lasers, LEDs, optical modulators, quantum well devices, resonant tunneling devices, FETs, and superconducting tunnel junctions and integrated circuits. His pioneering work on sophisticated diagnostic research has led to many world's first reports and has been adopted by other researchers in academia and industry. He authored more than seventy peer-reviewed journal papers, published more than ten invention disclosures in the IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, has served as reviewer of numerous proposals for publication in technical journals, and has won five IBM Research Division Awards. His key achievements include the design and fabrication of high-power, highly reliable, single mode diode lasers.



Auteur

Peter W. Epperlein, Pwe-PhotonicsElectronics-IssueResolution Consulting, UK

Texte du rabat

Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics
A Practical Approach to High Power and Single Mode Devices

This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature.

Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performance- and reliability-impacting factors such as temperature, stress and material instabilities.

Further key features include:

  • practical design guidelines that consider also reliability related effects, key laser robustness factors, basic laser fabrication and packaging issues;
  • detailed discussion of diagnostic investigations of diode lasers, the fundamentals of the applied approaches and techniques, many of them pioneered by the author to be fit-for-purpose and novel in the application;
  • systematic insight into laser degradation modes such as catastrophic optical damage, and a wide range of technologies to increase the optical strength of diode lasers;
  • coverage of basic concepts and techniques of laser reliability engineering with details on a standard commercial high power laser reliability test program.

Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics reflects the extensive expertise of the author in the diode laser field both as a top scientific researcher as well as a key developer of high-power highly reliable devices. With invaluable practical advice, this new reference book is suited to practising researchers in diode laser technologies, and to postgraduate engineering students.

Contenu

Preface xix

About the author xxiii

Part 1 Diode Laser Engineering 1

Overview 1

1 Basic diode laser engineering principles 3

Introduction 4

1.1 Brief recapitulation 4

1.1.1 Key features of a diode laser 4

1.1.1.1 Carrier population inversion 4

1.1.1.2 Net gain mechanism 6

1.1.1.3 Optical resonator 9

1.1.1.4 Transverse vertical confinement 11

1.1.1.5 Transverse lateral confinement 12

1.1.2 Homojunction diode laser 13

1.1.3 Double-heterostructure diode laser 15

1.1.4 Quantum well diode laser 17

1.1.4.1 Advantages of quantum well heterostructures for diode lasers 22

Wavelength adjustment and tunability 22

Strained quantum well lasers 23

Optical power supply 25

Temperature characteristics 26

1.1.5 Common compounds for semiconductor lasers 26

1.2 Optical output power diverse aspects 31

1.2.1 Approaches to high-power diode lasers 31

1.2.1.1 Edge-emitters 31

1.2.1.2 Surface-emitters 33

1.2.2 High optical power considerations 35

1.2.2.1 Laser brightness 36

1.2.2.2 Laser beam quality factor M2 36

1.2.3 Power limitations 37

1.2.3.1 Kinks 37

1.2.3.2 Rollover 38

1.2.3.3 Catastrophic optical damage 38

1.2.3.4 Aging 39

1.2.4 High power versus reliability tradeoffs 39

1.2.5 Typical and record-high cw optical output powers 40

1.2.5.1 Narrow-stripe, single spatial mode lasers 40

1.2.5.2 Standard 100 m wide aperture single emitters 42

1.2.5.3 Tapered amplifier lasers 43

1.2.5.4 Standard 1 cm diode laser bar arrays 44

1.3 Selected relevant basic diode laser characteristics 45

1.3.1 Threshold gain 45

1.3.2 Material gain spectra 46

1.3.2.1 Bulk double-heterostructure laser 46

1.3.2.2 Quantum well laser 47

1.3.3 Optical confinement 49

1.3.4 Threshold current 52

1.3.4.1 Double-heterostructure laser 52

1.3.4.2 Quantum well laser 54

1.3.4.3 Cavity length dependence 54

1.3.4.4 Active layer thickness dependence 56

1.3.5 Transverse vertical and transverse lateral modes 58

1.3.5.1 Vertical confinement structures summary 58

Double-heterostructure 58

Single quantum well 58

Strained quantum well 59

Separate confinement heterostructure SCH and graded-index SCH (GRIN-SCH) 59

Multiple quantum well (MQW) 59

1.3.5.2 Lateral confinement structures 60

Gain-guiding concept and key features 60

Weakly index-guiding concept and key features 62

Strongly index-guiding concept and key features 63

1.3.5.3 Near-field and far-field pattern 64

1.3.6 FabryP´erot longitudinal modes 67

1.3.7 Operating characteristics 69

1.3.7.1 Optical output power and efficiency 72

1.3.7.2 Internal efficiency and optical loss measurements 74

1.3.7.3 Temperature dependence of laser characteristics 74

1.3.8 Mirror reflectivity modifications 77

1.4 Laser fabrication technology 81

1.4.1 Laser wafer growth 82

1.4.1.1 Substrate specifications and preparation 82

1.4.1.2 Substrate loading 82

1.4.1.3 Growth 83

1.4.2 Laser wafer processing 84

1.4.2.1 Ridge waveguide etching and embedding 84

1.4.2.2 The p-type electrode 84

1.4.2.3 Ridge waveguide protection 85

1.4.2.4 Wafer thinning and the n-type electrode 85

1.4.2.5 Wafer cleaving; facet passivation and coating; laser optical inspection; and electrical testing 86

1.4.3 Laser packaging 86

1.4.3.1 Package formats 87

1.4.3.2 Device bonding 87

1.4.3.3 Optical power coupling 89

1.4.3.4 Device operating temperature control 95

1.4.3.5 Hermetic sealing 95

References ...

Informations sur le produit

Titre: Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics
Sous-titre: A Practical Approach to High Power and Single Mode Devices
Auteur:
EAN: 9781118481875
ISBN: 978-1-118-48187-5
Format: eBook (pdf)
Producteur: Wiley
Editeur: Wiley
Genre: Électricité, magnétisme, optique
Parution: 25.01.2013
Protection contre la copie numérique: Adobe DRM
Taille de fichier: 24.18 MB
Nombre de pages: 520
Année: 2013