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The Phenomenological Movement

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The present attempt to introduce the general philosophical reader to the Phenomenological Movement by way of its history has itsel... Lire la suite
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Description

The present attempt to introduce the general philosophical reader to the Phenomenological Movement by way of its history has itself a history which is pertinent to its objective. It may suitably be opened by the following excerpts from a review which Herbert W. Schneider of Columbia University, the Head of the Division for International Cultural Cooperation, Department of Cultural Activities of Unesco from 1953 to 56, wrote in 1950 from France: The influence of Husserl has revolutionized continental philosophies, not because his philosophy has become dominant, but because any philosophy now seeks to accommodate itself to, and express itself in, phenomenological method. It is the sine qua non of critical respectability. In America, on the contrary, phenomenology is in its infancy. The average American student of philosophy, when he picks up a recent volume of philosophy published on the continent of Europe, must first learn the "tricks" of the phenomenological trade and then translate as best he can the real impon of what is said into the kind of imalysis with which he is familiar . . . . No doubt, American education will graduaUy take account of the spread of phenomenological method and terminology, but until it does, American readers of European philosophy have a severe handicap; and this applies not only to existentialism but to almost all current philosophical literature. ' These sentences clearly implied a challenge, if not a mandate, to all those who by background and interpretive ability were in a position to meet it.

Contenu
1. The Phenomenological Movement Defined.- 2. Unrelated Phenomenologies.- a. Extra-Philosophical Phenomenologies.- b. Philosophical Phenomenologies.- 3. Preview.- One / The Preparatory Phase.- I. Franz Brentano (18381917): Forerunner of the Phenomenological Movement.- 1. Brentano's Place in the History of Phenomenology.- 2. His Purpose: A Scientific Reformation of Philosophy.- 3. A New Psychology as the Foundation for Scientific Philosophy.- 4. A New Type of Empiricism.- 5. Descriptive Psychology versus Genetic Psychology.- 6. A New Type of Experience: Inner Perception versus Introspection.- 7. Intentionality: The Basic Psychological Phenomenon.- 8. A Natural Classification of Psychical Acts.- 9. A Fundamental Law of Psychical Phenomena.- 10. The Awareness of Time.- 11. An Analogue of Self-Evidence as the Basis for Ethical Knowledge.- 12. Brentano's Fight against Fictitious Entities.- 13. How Far Was Brentano a Representative of Psychologism?.- Selective Bibliography.- II. Carl Stumpf (18481936): Founder of Experimental Phenomenology.- 1. Stumpf's Place in the History of Phenomenology.- 2. The Role of Phenomenology in His Work.- 3. General Characteristics of His Phenomenology.- a. The Subject Matter of Phenomenology Consists of Primary and Secondary Phenomena.- b. Phenomenology is a Neutral Science or Pre-Science (Vorwissenschaft).- c. Phenomenology is the First of the Neutral Pre-Sciences.- d. Phenomenology is Not an Independent Discipline for Specialists, but Rather the First Layer in the Study of Every Established Science.- e. Phenomenology, while a Descriptive Science, has to be Studied by All Suitable Methods, Including the Experimental One.- 4. Some Concrete Phenomenological Contributions.- a. The Distinction between Dependent and Independent Parts and the Experience of Substance and Attribute.- b. The Experience of Causal Nexus.- c. The Experience of Feel-Sensations (Gefühlsempfindungen).- d. The Discovery of Structural Laws among Empirical Materials Not Based upon Induction.- e. The Discovery of the Sachverhalt.- 5. The Relationship of Stumpf's and Husserl's Phenomenologies.- Excursus: Stumpf's Phenomenology and William James's Psychology.- Selective Bibliography.- Two / The German Phase of the Movement.- III. The Pure Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl (18591938).- A. Introductory.- B. Constants in Husserl's Conception of Philosophy.- 1. The Ideal of Rigorous Science.- 2. Philosophic Radicalism.- 3. The Ethos of Radical Autonomy.- 4. The Wonder of All Wonders: Subjectivity.- 5. Husserl's Personality and His Philosophy.- C. Variables in the Development of Husserl's Philosophy.- 1. The Pre-Phenomenological Period.- a. The Critique of Psychologism.- b. The Conception of a Pure Logic.- Excursus: Meinong's Gegenstandstheorie and Husserl's Logic.- 2. The Beginnings of Phenomenology as the Subjective Correlate of Pure Logic.- a. Husserl's Semantics.- b. Husserl's Doctrine of Universals (Essences).- c. The Intentionality of Consciousness.- Excursus: William James's Significance for Husserl's Phenomenology.- d. Phenomenological Intuiting (Anschauung and Wesensschau).- 3. Phenomenology Becomes First Philosophy.- Excursus: Wilhelm Dilthey and Edmund Husserl.- 4. The Birth of the Phenomenological Movement and the Beginnings of Transcendental Phenomenology.- a. Self-Givenness Phenomenology and Positivism.- b. Phenomenology of Perception and Self-Evidence.- c. The Phenomenological Reduction.- Excursus: Santayana's Ultimate Scepticism Compared with Husserl's Phenomenological Reduction.- d. The Phenomenological Residue: Ego Cogito Cogitata Mea.- e. Phenomenological Idealism.- Excursus: Husserl and Josiah Royce.- f. Phenomenological Constitution and the Consciousness of Time.- g. Phenomenology and Psychology.- 5. Toward a System of Transcendental Phenomenology.- Intersubjectivity and Transcendental Monadology.- 6. The Last Beginning.- The Idea of the Life-World (Lebenswelt).- D. In Place of an Appraisal.- Postscript 1980.- Selective Bibliography.- IV. The Original Phenomenological Movement.- A. The Phenomenological Circles.- 1. The Göttingen Circle.- 2. The Munich Circle.- B. Alexander Pfänder (18701941): From Phenomenological Psychology to Phenomenological Philosophy.- 1. Pfänder's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. The Place of Phenomenology in His Philosophy.- 3. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. Phenomenological Psychology.- b. Phenomenological Philosophy.- 4. Examples of His Phenomenology.- a. Directed Sentiments (Gesinnungen).- b. Basic and Empirical Essences.- c. The Perception of Oughtness.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- Selective Bibliography.- 6. Pfänder's Following: Maximilian Beck, Gerda Walther, Herbert Spiegelberg, Josef Stürmann.- C. Adolf Reinach (18831917): Phenomenological Ontology of Essences.- 1. Reinach's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 3. Illustrations of His Phenomenology.- a. A Theory of Social Acts.- b. Essential Laws Concerning Legal Entities.- Selective Bibliography.- D. Moritz Geiger (18801937): From Phenomenological Esthetics to ward Metaphysics.- 1. Geiger's Conception of Phenomenology.- 2. Illustrations of His Phenomenological Analyses.- a. Esthetic Enjoyment.- b. Existential Depth.- c. The Unconscious.- Selective Bibliography.- E. Hedwig Conrad-Martius (18881966): Phenomenology and Reality (by Eberhard Avé-Lallemant).- 1. Conrad-Martius's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. Her Conception of Phenomenology.- 3. The Phenomenon of Reality.- 4. Philosophy of Nature on Phenomenological Foundations.- 5. Toward an Appraisal.- Selective Bibliography.- F. Roman Ingarden (18931970): Ontological Phenomenology (by Guido Küng).- 1. Ingarden's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 3. A Phenomenologist's Analysis of the Idealism-Realism Controversy.- 4. The Phenomenology of the Work of Art.- 5. Toward an Appraisal.- Selective Bibliography.- G. Other Members of the Göttingen and Munich Circles.- 1. August Gallinger (18711959).- 2. Aloys Fischer (18801937).- 3. Theodor Conrad (18811969).- 4. Wilhelm Schapp (18841965).- 5. Kurt Stavenhagen (18851951).- 6. Dietrich von Hildebrand (18891977).- 7. Hans Lipps (18891941).- 8. Adolf Grimme (18891963).- 9. Jean Hering (18901966).- 10. Edith Stein (18911942).- 11. Alexandre Koyré (18921964).- H. The Freiburg Group.- 1. The New Setting.- 2. Husserl's Collaborators: Ludwig Landgrebe, Eugen Fink.- 3. Other Husserl Associates: Oskar Becker, Fritz Kaufmann, Ludwig Ferdinand Clauss, Arnold Metzger.- 4. The Central Field: Wilhelm Szilasi, Hans Reiner.- 5. The Periphery: Aron Gurwitsch, Emmanuel Levinas, Theodor Celms, Christopher V. Salmon, Marvin Farber, Dorion Cairns.- 6. Radiations: Felix Kaufmann, Alfred Schutz, Jan Patocka.- 7. Retrospect.- V. The Phenomenology of Essences: Max Scheler (18741928).- 1. Max Scheler's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Basic Concerns.- 3. Phenomenology in the Development of His Philosophy.- 4. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. The Doctrine of the Phenomenological Controversy (phänomenologischer Streit).- b. The Idols of Self-Knowledge.- c. The Phenomenon of Resistance as the Criterion of Reality.- d. Scheler's Phenomenological Reduction.- 5. The Place of Phenomenology in His Philosophy.- 6. His Phenomenology in Action.- a. Value and Oughtness.- b. Cognitive Emotion.- c. Ethical Absolutism and Relativity.- d. Sympathy.- e. Knowledge of Other Minds.- f. Religion.- 7. Toward an Appraisal of Scheler as a Phenomenologist.- 8. Scheler's Following: Hendrik Stoker, Paul-Ludwig Landsberg.- Selective Bibliography.- VI. Phenomenology in the Critical Ontology of Nicolai Hartmann (18821950).- 1. Hartmann's Relation to the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Philosophical Objective: Critical Ontology.- 3. The Role of Phenomenology in His Philosophical Development.- 4. His Version of Phenomenology.- 5. Illustrations of His Phenomenology.- a. Metaphysics of Knowledge.- b. The Givenness of Reality.- c. The Discovery of Value and the Narrowness of Value Consciousness.- d. Activated Ideals (Aktuales Seinsollen).- 6. Toward an Appraisal of Hartmann's Phenomenology.- 7. Hartmann's Following and Phenomenology.- Selective Bibliography.- VII. Martin Heidegger (18891976) as a Phenomenologist.- 1. On Understanding Heidegger.- 2. His Place in the History of Phenomenology.- 3. The Basic Theme: The Quest for Being, Truth, and Time.- 4. The Development of Heidegger's Thought of Being.- a. The Preparatory Period.- b. The Phenomenological Period.- c. The Turn (Kehre).- 5. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. Hermeneutic Phenomenology.- b. Hermeneutics in Action.- c. The Idea of Phenomenology in the 1927 Lectures.- d. Phenomenology in Heidegger's Later Philosophy.- 6. Toward an Appraisal of Heidegger's Phenomenology.- a. To What Extent was Heidegger a Phenomenologist?.- b. Strengths and Weaknesses of Heidegger's Phenomenology.- Selective Bibliography.- Three / The French Phase of the Movement.- Introductory.- VIII. The Beginnings of French Phenomenology.- 1. The Soil.- 2. The Receptive Phase.- 3. Phenomenology and Existentialism.- 4. Phenomenology and Hegelianism.- 5. Phenomenological Existentialism and Literature.- 6. Phenomenological Existentialism and Marxism.- IX. Gabriel Marcel (18891974) as a Phenomenologist.- 1. Marcel's Relations to the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Concern.- 3. The Development of His Philosophy.- 4. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 5. His Phenomenology in Action.- 6. The Phenomenology of Having.- 7. Concluding Observations.- Selective Bibliography.- X. The Phenomenology of Jean-Paul Sartre (19051980).- 1. On Understanding Sartre.- 2. His Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 3. His Central Theme: Freedom versus Being.- 4. The Role of Phenomenology in the Development of His Thought.- a. The Pre-Phenomenological Period.- b. Phenomenological Psychology.- c. Phenomenological Ontology.- d. Phenomenological Existentialism.- e. Existentialist Marxism.- 5. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. The Common Ground.- b. Distinguishing Characteristics.- 6. His Phenomenology in Action.- a. Imagination.- b. The Magic of the Emotions.- c. Absence and Nothingness.- d. The Gaze (regard).- e. The Body.- 7. Phenomenology in Dialectical Reason.- 8. Toward an Appraisal of Sartre's Phenomenology.- 9. His Following: Simone de Beauvoir, Francis Jeanson, Benny Lévy.- Selective Bibliography.- XI. The Phenomenological Philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty (19081961).- 1. Merleau-Ponty's Position in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. Guiding Themes in His Philosophy.- 3. The Development of His Phenomenology.- 4. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 5. Some Key Chapters from His Phenomenology.- a. The Structure of Behavior and the Phenomenology of Gestalt.- b. Perception.- c. The New Cogito: Being-Within-the-World (Être-au-Monde).- d. Subjectivity and Temporality.- e. Conditioned Freedom.- f. The Social World Speech and Language.- 6. Toward an Appraisal of His Phenomenology.- 7. The Meaning of His Last Philosophy.- a. The New Ontology.- b. Ontology and Phenomenology.- 8. His Following: Claude Lefort, Alphonse de Waelhens.- Selective Bibliography.- XII. Paul Ricoeur and Some Associates.- A. Paul Ricoeur (born 1913).- 1. His Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Guiding Interests.- 3. His Development.- 4. His First Conception of Phenomenology.- 5. His Phenomenology of the Will.- 6. His Hermeneutic Turn.- Selective Bibliography.- B. Mikel Dufrenne (born 1910): Phenomenology of Esthetic Experience.- Selective Bibliography.- C. Raymond Polin (born 1911): Phenomenology of Values.- Selective Bibliography.- XIII. Emmanuel Levinas (Born 1906): Phenomenological Philosophy (by Stephan Strasser).- 1. Existential Experiences.- 2. Levinas's Philosophical Development.- 3. Metaphysics Instead of Fundamental Ontology.- a. War Commercium History, Need and Desire.- b. Egoism and Alterity.- c. Countenance and Ethical Resistance.- d. Metaphysics of Hospitality.- e. Freedom Put in Question.- f. Created from Nothing.- g. The Verdict about History.- h. Temporality and Temporalization.- i. Absolute Future.- 4. Ethics as First Philosophy.- a. The Other in Relation to Being.- b. The Ethical Ground of Saying.- c. The Patience of the Bodily I.- d. Forms of an An-archical Responsibility: the Substitute, the Guarantor, the Atoner for the Other.- e. Trace and Absolute Past.- f. Ambiguity of the Trace.- g. Prophecy.- h. The Scepsis of Discourse.- i. The Third and Justice.- 5. Levinas and the Phenomenological Movement.- Selective Bibliography.- Four / The Geography of the Phenomenological Movement.- 1. Introductory.- 2. The German Area: Renaissance?.- 3. France: Continuations and Alternatives.- 4. Italy: Inroads.- 5. Spain: Revival Through Phenomenology.- 6. Latin America: Proliferations.- 7. Portuguese Area: Side Currents.- 8. The British Scene: Ups and Downs.- 9. United States and Canada: Breadth.- 10. Russia: Penetrations.- 11. Eastern Europe: Dialogue.- 12. India: Affinities.- 13. Japan: Resonances.- 14. Assessment.- a. Today's Status.- b. Instead of a Prognosis.- Five / The Essentials of the Phenomenological Method.- A. Phenomenology and Phenomenological Method.- B. The Phenomenological Method as a Protest against Reductionism.- C. The Steps of the Phenomenological Method.- 1. Investigating Particular Phenomena.- a. Phenomenological Intuiting.- Excursus: Does Phenomenology Explore only Subjective Phenomena?.- b. Phenomenological Analyzing.- c. Phenomenological Describing.- 2. Investigating General Essences (Eidetic Intuiting).- 3. Apprehending Essential Relationships.- 4. Watching Modes of Appearing.- 5. Exploring the Constitution of Phenomena in Consciousness.- 6. Suspending Belief in Existence.- 7. Interpreting Concealed Meanings.- D. In Conclusion.- Appendices.- Chart I: Chronology of the Phenomenological Movement in Germany.- Chart II: Chronology of the Phenomenological Movement in France.- Chart III: Chronology of the Phenomenological Movement in the Anglo-American World.- Index of Subjects, Combined with a Selective Glossary of Phenomenological Terms.- Index of Names.

Informations sur le produit

Titre: The Phenomenological Movement
éditeur:
EAN: 9789024725779
ISBN: 9024725771
Format: Livre Relié
Editeur: Springer Netherlands
Nombre de pages: 856
Poids: 1431g
Taille: H241mm x B160mm x T50mm
Année: 1981
Sous-titre : Englisch
Edition: 3rd ed. 1994

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