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Designing for Situation Awareness

  • Couverture cartonnée
  • 396 Nombre de pages
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"Preface Our Age of Anxiety is, in great part, the result of trying to do today's jobs with yesterday's tools. Marshall McLuhan Wh... Lire la suite
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Description

"Preface Our Age of Anxiety is, in great part, the result of trying to do today's jobs with yesterday's tools. Marshall McLuhan While a clear understanding of one's situation is undoubtedly the critical trigger that allows the knowledge, skills, and creativity of the human mind to be successfully brought to bear in shaping our environment, very often people must work uphill, against systems and technologies that block rather than enhance their ability to ascertain the information they need. Knowledge in a vacuum is meaningless. Its use in overcoming human problems and achieving human goals requires the successful application of that knowledge in ways that are contextually appropriate. Yet, across a wide variety of engineered systems, people face an ever-widening information gap--the gulf between the data that is available and the information that they really need to know. This book addresses the information gap through system design. It presents a core set of principles and a methodology for engineers and designers who are seeking to nourish the situation awareness of their system's users. Operators of power plants, aircraft, automobiles, ships, command and control centers for military and large-scale commercial enterprises, intelligence operations, medical systems, and information management systems are all in need of technologies that allow people to effectively manage the information available to gain a high level of understanding of what is happening. They need systems designed to support situation awareness. We are indebted to many people. First, we are grateful for the support and patience of our families during the writing of this book--may it lead to a better world for our children"--

Auteur

SA Technologies, Marietta, Georgia, USA

Texte du rabat

Liberally illustrated with actual design examples, this book demonstrates how people acquire and interpret information and examines the factors that undermine this process. The first edition successfully filled a significant gap in the market, presenting a core set of principles and a methodology for engineers and designers who are seeking to nourish the situation awareness of their system's users. The second edition significantly expands and updates the examples throughout to include wider range of domains and increases the coverage of SA design principles and guidelines to include new areas of current development. It translates current research into a usable, applicable method and guidelines.



Résumé
Offers a core set of principles and a methodology for engineers and designers who are seeking to nourish the situation awareness (SA) of their system's users. This book includes wider range of domains and increases the coverage of SA design principles.

Contenu

Understanding Situation Awareness in System Design
User-Centered Design
Who Is This Book For?
Why Do We Need User-Centered Design?
What Does User-Centered Design Mean?
Principles for User-Centered Design
Situation Awareness: The Key to User-Centered Design

What Is Situation Awareness?
SA Defined
Time as a Part of SA
Situation Awareness as a Product of the Process
Perception and Attention
Working Memory
Mental Models, Schema, and Scripts
Goals and SA
Expectations
Automaticity and SA
Summary

SA Demons: The Enemies of Situation Awareness
Attentional Tunneling
Requisite Memory Trap
Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors
Data Overload
Misplaced Salience
Complexity Creep
Errant Mental Models
Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome
Summary

Design Process
Systems Development Life Cycle
User Interface Design Process
Situation Awareness-Oriented Design

Creating Situation Awareness-Oriented Designs
Determining SA Requirements
Goal-Directed Task Analysis
Methodology Overview
Interviews
Determining the Preliminary Goal Structure
Future Interviews
Interview Issues
Organizational Tips
GDTA Validation

Principles of Designing for SA
From Theory to Design
Case Study: SA-Oriented Design

Confidence and Uncertainty in SA and Decision Making
Uncertainty
Types and Sources of Uncertainty
Role of Confidence in Linking SA and Decision Making
Management of Uncertainty
Design Principles for Representing Uncertainty

Dealing with Complexity
Simplified View of Complexity
Design Principles for Taming Complexity

Alarms, Diagnosis, and SA
An Alarming Practice
Processing Alarms in the Context of SA
Principles for the Design of Alarm Systems

Automation and Situation Awareness
Automation: A Help or a Hindrance?
Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome
Automation and Level of Understanding
Decision Support Dilemma
New Approaches to Automation
Principles for Designing Automated Systems

Designing to Support SA for Multiple and Distributed Operators
Team Operations
SA in Teams
What Is Shared SA?
Critical Factors Affecting SA in Teams
SA in Distributed Teams
SA Breakdowns in Teams
Design Principles for Supporting Team Operations

Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles
Unmanned Vehicles for Many Uses
Classes of Unmanned Vehicle Control
Human Error in Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Situation Awareness Requirements for Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Challenges for SA in Remote Operations
Factors for Effective Design of Unmanned Vehicle Tasks and Systems
Summary

SA Oriented Training
Need for Training to Enhance SA
Challenges for Novices
Mental Models Form a Key Mechanism for Expertise
Schema of Prototypical Situations or Patterns
Critical Skills for SA
Examples of SA Deficits in Novices
Training Approaches for Improving Situation Awareness
Summary

Completing the Design Cycle
Evaluating Design Concepts for SA
Indirect Measures of Situation Awareness
Direct Measures of Situation Awareness
Measuring Team SA
Case Study
Summary

Applying SA-Oriented Design to Complex Systems
Combating the Enemies of Situation Awareness
SA-Oriented Design Synergy
System Evaluation
Future Directions

Appendix A: Goal-Directed Task Analysis for Commercial Airline Pilots
References
Index

Informations sur le produit

Titre: Designing for Situation Awareness
Auteur:
Code EAN: 9781420063554
ISBN: 978-1-4200-6355-4
Format: Couverture cartonnée
Editeur: Taylor and Francis
Genre: Généralités et lexiques
nombre de pages: 396
Poids: 567g
Taille: H234mm x B156mm
Année: 2012
Auflage: 2. A.

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