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Methods in Soil Biology

  • Couverture cartonnée
  • 448 Nombre de pages
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In terrestrial ecosystems, soil microorganisms and soil animals are essential for litter degradation, soil formation and the avail... Lire la suite
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Description

In terrestrial ecosystems, soil microorganisms and soil animals are essential for litter degradation, soil formation and the availability of nutrients and trace elements. The measurement of biological soil parameters allows a rapid evaluation of the effects of chemical and physical influences due to pollutants or soil management. This book introduces a number of well proved methods for the analysis of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles. It focuses further on the determination of the number and biomass of microorganisms, algae and animals in the soil. Particular emphasis is placed on the comprehensible and complete description of the experimental procedures.

Contenu

I Methods in Soil Microbiology.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Soil Sampling and Sample Preparation.- 2.1 Soil Sampling.- 2.2 Sample Preparation.- 3 Bacterial Biomass.- 3.1 Counting by Fluorescence Microscopy.- 3.2 Plate Count Technique.- 3.3 Physiological Groups by Most Probable Number Method.- 3.4 Denitrifiers by MPN Method.- 3.5 Nitrifiers by MPN Method.- 3.6 Free-living Aerobic and Microaerophilic Nitrogen Fixers by MPN Method.- 3.7 Identification and Quantification with Monoclonal Antibodies.- 4 Indirect Estimation of Microbial Biomass.- 4.1 Fungal Biomass by Ergosterol Content.- 4.2 Biomass-C by Fumigation-Incubation Technique.- 4.3 Biomass-C by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.4 Biomass-N by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.5 Ninhydrin-Reactive N by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.6 Biomass-P by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.7 Substrate-Induced Respiration.- 4.8 Substrate-Induced Heat Output.- 4.9 Mathematical Analysis of Respiration Curves.- 5 Community Structure of Soil Microorganisms.- 5.1 Fatty Acid Patterns of Microbial Phospholipids and Lipopolysaccharides.- 6 Soil Respiration.- 6.1 Soil Respiration by Titration.- 6.2 Soil Respiration by Infrared Gas Analysis.- 6.3 Basal Respiration by a Syringe Micromethod.- 6.4 Soil Respiration by Oxygen Uptake.- 7 Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter.- 7.1 In Situ Studies of Litter Decomposition.- 7.2 Humification.- 7.3 Soil Organic Matter Turnover by Carbon-Stable Isotopes.- 8 Non-Symbiontic Nitrogen Fixation.- 8.1 Nitrogenase Activity by Acetylene Reduction.- 8.2 Microbial Ethylene Production.- 8.3 Nitrogenase Activity by 15N2-Fixation.- 9 Nitrogen Mineralization.- 9.1 In Situ Studies of N-Mineralization.- 9.2 N-Mineralization Under Aerobic Conditions.- 9.3 N-Mineralization Under Waterlogged Conditions.- 10 Nitrification and Denitrification.- 10.1 Potential Nitrification.- 10.2 Nitrification During Long-Term Incubation.- 10.3 Actual and Potential Denitrification Rates by Acetylene-Inhibition Technique.- 10.4 In Situ Quantification of Total Denitrification Losses by Acetylene-Inhibition Technique.- 11 Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Metabolism.- 11.1 Protease Activity.- 11.2 Arginine Deaminase Activity.- 11.3 Urease Activity by Colorimetric Technique.- 11.4 Urease Activity by Distillation Technique.- 11.5 Nitrate Reductase Activity.- 11.6 Denitrification Enzyme Activity.- 12 Enzymes Involved in Carbon Metabolism.- 12.1 CM-Cellulase Activity.- 12.2 Xylanase Activity.- 12.3 Invertase Activity.- 12.4 ß-Glucosidase Activity.- 12.5 Chitinase Activity.- 12.6 Lipase Activity by Fluorometry.- 12.7 Lipase Activity by Titration.- 13 Enzymes Involved in Phosphorus Metabolism.- 13.1 Phosphomonoesterase Activity with the Substrate Phenylphosphate.- 13.2 Phosphomonoesterase Activity with the Substrate p-Nitrophenyl Phosphate.- 13.3 Phosphodiesterase Activity.- 13.4 Phosphotriesterase Activity.- 13.5 Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Activity.- 13.6 Phospholipase-C Activity.- 14 Enzymes Involved in Sulfur Metabolism.- 14.1 Arylsulfatase Activity.- 14.2 Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reduction.- 15 Enzymes Involved in Intracellular Metabolism.- 15.1 Catalase Activity.- 15.2 Dehydrogenase Activity with the Substrate TTC.- 15.3 Dehydrogenase Activity with the Substrate INT.- 16 Adenosine Phosphates.- 16.1 Adenylates and Adenylate Energy Charge (AEC).- 16.2 ATP by TCA-Extraction Technique.- 16.3 ATP by Sulfuric Acid-Extraction Technique.- 17 Indolic and Phenolic Compounds.- 17.1 Auxins, L-Tryptophan and Related Indolic and Phenolic Catabolites.- 18 Ectomycorrhizae.- 18.1 Quantification.- 18.2 Morphological and Anatomical Characterization.- 19 Soil Algae.- 19.1 Direct Examination of Soil Algae.- 19.2 Direct Examination of Diatoms.- 19.3 Enrichment Cultures.- 19.4 Pure Cultures.- 19.5 Counting by Fluorescence Microscopy.- 19.6 Direct Counting.- 20 Ecophysiological Parameters.- II Methods in Soil Zoology.- 21 Introduction.- 22 Microfauna.- 22.1 Soil Sampling.- 22.2 Sample Preparation.- 22.3 Testate Amoebae (Testacea).- 22.4 Ciliates (Ciliophora).- 22.5 Flagellates.- 22.6 Nematodes (Nematoda).- 23 Mesofauna.- 23.1 Characteristics of Selected Representatives.- 23.2 Soil Sampling.- 23.3 Extraction of Soil Samples.- 23.4 Abundance and Biomass of Extracted Animals.- 24 Endogeic Macrofauna.- 24.1 Characteristics of Selected Representatives.- 24.2 Soil Sampling.- 24.3 Extraction of Soil Samples.- 24.4 Abundance and Biomass of Extracted Animals.- 24.5 Sampling of Earthworms.- 25 Epigeic Macrofauna.- 25.1 Characteristics of Selected Representatives.- 25.2 Pitfall Traps.- 25.3 Emerging Abundance (Ground Emergence Traps).- 25.4 Abundance of Epigeic Macro-Arthropods.- 26 Functional Activity of Soil Animals.- 27 Microbial-Faunal Interactions in Soils.- 27.1 Microcosm.- 27.2 Field-Enclosure.- 27.3 Mesocosm.- III Methods in Soil Physics and Chemistry.- 28 Methods in Soil Physics.- 28.1 Dry Matter and Water Content.- 28.2 Maximum Water-Holding Capacity.- 28.3 Particle Size Distribution.- 28.4 Aggregate Stability.- 29 Methods in Soil Chemistry.- 29.1 Acidity.- 29.2 Organic Matter by Wet Combustion.- 29.3 Organic Carbon in Soil Extracts.- 29.4 Organic Carbon by Dry Combustion.- 29.5 Dissolved Organic Carbon by Dry Combustion.- 29.6 Total Nitrogen.- 29.7 Ammonium.- 29.8 Nitrate.- 29.9 Phosphorus in Soil Extracts.- 29.10 Total, Organic, Inorganic and Plant-Available Phosphorus.- Appendix: Basic Laboratory Equipment.

Informations sur le produit

Titre: Methods in Soil Biology
Éditeur:
Code EAN: 9783642646331
ISBN: 3642646336
Format: Couverture cartonnée
nombre de pages: 448
Poids: 672g
Taille: H235mm x B155mm x T24mm
Année: 2011
Auflage: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996

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