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Methods and Instrumentations: Results and Recent Developments

  • Couverture cartonnée
  • 468 Nombre de pages
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All existing introductory reviews of mineralogy are written accord ing to the same algorithm, sometimes called the "Dana Syst... Lire la suite
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Description

All existing introductory reviews of mineralogy are written accord ing to the same algorithm, sometimes called the "Dana System of Mineralogy". Even modern advanced handbooks, which are cer tainly necessary, include basic data on minerals and are essentially descriptive. When basic information on the chemistry, structure, optical and physical properties, distinguished features and para genesis of 200-400 minerals is presented, then there is practically no further space available to include new ideas and concepts based on recent mineral studies. A possible solution to this dilemma would be to present a book beginning where introductory textbooks end for those already famil iar with the elementary concepts. Such a volume would be tailored to specialists in all fields of science and industry, interested in the most recent results in mineralogy. This approach may be called Advanced Mineralogy. Here, an attempt has been made to survey the current possibilities and aims in mineral mater investigations, including the main characteristics of all the methods, the most important problems and topics of mineralogy, and related studies. The individual volumes are composed of short, condensed chap ters. Each chapter presents in a complete, albeit condensed, form specific problems, methods, theories, and directions of investigations, and estimates their importance and strategic position in science and industry.

Auteur
The second out of five planned volumes contains a wealth of recent results on the structures and properties of minerals and mineral matter. All five planned volumes allow a systematic overview of all mineralogical disciplines, important for both science and industry.

Texte du rabat

This reference book is the second in a series of five presenting a concise treatise on problems and final results of modern studies of earth and planetary materials in their most sophisticated aspects. Encyclopedic in its coverage of subjects, they include the systematic description of all areas of mineral matter studies corresponding to the actual capabilities and needs of science and industry. The second volume contains chapters on methods regarding Diffraction, Solid State Spectroscopy, Remote Sensing, Microprobe Analysis, Tunneling Microscopy, Analytical and Isotopic Mineralogy as well of Computer Databases. It is an invaluable reference for all scientists in academia and industry interested in properties of minerals in geophysics, technological mineralogy, and material sciences.



Contenu

1 Systematics of the Methods of Investigation of Minerals: Logic of Development.- 2 Diffraction Methods and Crystal Structure Analysis.- 2.1 Crystal Structure Analysis and X-Ray Diffraction Instrumentation.- 2.2 X-Ray Diffraction Techniques for the Characterization of Minerals.- 2.3 Neutron Scattering, Neutron Diffraction: Hydrogen Location, Cation Distribution, Magnetic Structures.- 2.4 Electron Diffraction Analysis.- 3 Solid State Spectroscopy.- 3.1 Nuclear Gamma Resonance (Mossbauer) Spectroscopy.- 3.1.1 Summary of Theory and Important Results.- 3.1.2 Experimental Techniques and Spectrum Fitting.- 3.1.3 Iron-Containing Minerals, Ores and Glasses.- 3.1.4 Mossbauer Spectroscopy of Sn, Sb, Eu, Au.- 3.2 X-Ray and Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Minerals.- 3.2.1 Parameters in Different Types of X-Ray Spectra.- 3.2.2 Mineralogical and Geochemical Information from X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy.- 3.3 Optical Absorption Spectroscopy.- 3.4 Luminescence of Minerals.- 3.4.1 Interpretation of Luminescence Spectra in Terms of Band Theory and Crystal Field Theory. Sensitization and Quenching. Photoluminescence, Radioluminescence, and Cathodoluminescence.- 3.4.2 Selective Laser Excitation of Rare-Earth Luminescence Spectra.- 3.4.3 Origins of Luminescence in Minerals: A Summary of Fundamental Studies and Applications.- 3.5 Thermoluminescence and Exoelectron Spectroscopy of Minerals.- 3.5.1 Mechanisms and Parameters; Factors Governing Thermoluminescence.- 3.5.2 Thermoluminescence Applications.- 3.5.3 Exoelectron Spectroscopy of Minerals.- 3.6 Infrared Spectroscopy.- 3.6.1 Band Assignments in Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy.- 3.6.2 Polarized Infrared Spectra.- 3.6.3 AppHcations of Infrared Spectroscopy to Structure and Bonding in Minerals and Glasses and to Speciation of Hydrous Components.- 3.7 Raman Spectroscopy in Earth Sciences.- 3.8 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR).- 3.8.1 Principles, Technique, Applications in Mineralogy.- 3.8.2 Electron Nuclear Double and Multiple Resonance.- 3.8.3 EPR: Improvement of Experimental Technique.- 3.9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy.- 3.10 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR).- 3.11 Muon Resonance. Application to the Study of the Hydrogen Atom Position in Quartz.- 4 Remote Sensing Methods: Visible, Infrared, and Microwave.- 5 Microprobe Analysis.- 5.1 Electron Probe Microanalysis.- 5.2 Trace Element Microanalysis by Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE): The Proton Microprobe.- 5.3 Nuclear Microprobe and Microscopic Analysis.- 6 Electron, Acoustic, and Tunneling Microscopy of Minerals.- 6.1 Electron Microscopy of Minerals.- 6.1.1 Fundamentals of TEM and HRTEM.- 6.1.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy and Image Formation.- 6.1.3 Apphcations of Transmission Electron Microscopy.- 6.1.4 Applications of Scanning Electron Microscopy.- 6.2 High Resolution Acoustic Microscopy.- 6.3 Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopy.- 7 Recent Developments in Analytical Methods in Mineralogy.- 7.1 General Overview of the Methods of Analysis of Minerals, Rocks, Ores, and Materials.- 7.2 Classical and Rapid Methods.- 7.3 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.- 7.4 Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.- 7.5 X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.- 7.6 Neutron Activation Analysis.- 7.7 Nuclear Techniques for Uranium and Thorium Analysis.- 7.8 Mass Spectrometry.- 7.9 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.- 7.10 Ion Exchange Techniques.- 8 Isotopie Mineralogy.- 8.1 Radioactive Isotopes in Mineralogy and Geochemistry.- 8.2 Isotopie Systems in Geochronology.- 8.2.1 The K-Ar Isotope System in Geochronology.- 8.2.2 40Ar/39Ar and its Laser Variant.- 8.2.3 The Rb-Sr Method of Isotopie Dating.- 8.2.4 The Sm-Nd Method of Isotope Dating.- 8.2.5 The U-Pb System and Zircon as Mineral Geochronometer.- 8.3 Noble Gas Isotopes in Planetary and Earth Minerals.- 8.4 Radiogenic Isotopes as Indicators of Sources of Mineral Matter.- 8.4.1 Pb Isotopy; The Lead Sources.- 8.5 Light Stable Isotope Ratios as Indicators for Conditions of Mineral Formation.- 8.5.1 Theoretical Aspects of Isotopic Fractionation.- 8.5.2 Natural Variations in Stable Isotopes.- 8.5.3 Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Mineralogy.- 8.5.4 Carbon Isotopes in Mineralogy and Geochemistry.- 8.5.5 Sulfur Isotopes in Mineralogy.- 8.5.6 Nitrogen Isotopes in Mineralogy.- 8.6.1 Geochemical Significance of Isotopic Ratios.- 8.6.2 Geochemical Significance of 143Nd/144Nd Isotopic Ratios.- 9 Computer Databases in Mineralogy.

Informations sur le produit

Titre: Methods and Instrumentations: Results and Recent Developments
Éditeur:
Code EAN: 9783642785283
ISBN: 364278528X
Format: Couverture cartonnée
nombre de pages: 468
Poids: 702g
Taille: H235mm x B155mm x T25mm
Année: 2012
Auflage: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995.

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