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Providing a sound grounding in this challenging area, Energy Geostructures discusses the recent advances and current knowledge in the geotechnical design of energy geostructures. Energy geostructures have been a tremendous innovation in the field of foundation engineering and are rapidly spreading all around the world.
Energy geostructures are a tremendous innovation in the field of foundation engineering and are spreading rapidly throughout the world. They allow the procurement of a renewable and clean source of energy which can be used for heating and cooling buildings. This technology couples the structural role of geostructures with the energy supply, using the principle of shallow geothermal energy. This book provides a sound basis in the challenging area of energy geostructures. The objective of this book is to supply the reader with an exhaustive overview on the most up-to-date and available knowledge of these structures. It details the procedures that are currently being applied in the regions where geostructures are being implemented. The book is divided into three parts, each of which is divided into chapters, and is written by the brightest engineers and researchers in the field. After an introduction to the technology as well as to the main effects induced by temperature variation on the geostructures, Part 1 is devoted to the physical modeling of energy geostructures, including in situ investigations, centrifuge testing and small-scale experiments. The second part includes numerical simulation results of energy piles, tunnels and bridge foundations, while also considering the implementation of such structures in different climatic areas. The final part concerns practical engineering aspects, from the delivery of energy geostructures through the development of design tools for their geotechnical dimensioning. The book concludes with a real case study. Contents Part 1. Physical Modeling of Energy Piles at Different Scales 1. Soil Response under Thermomechanical Conditions Imposed by Energy Geostructures, Alice Di Donna and Lyesse Laloui. 2. Full-scale In Situ Testing of Energy Piles, Thomas Mimouni and Lyesse Laloui. 3. Observed Response of Energy Geostructures, Peter Bourne-Webb. 4. Behavior of Heat-Exchanger Piles from Physical Modeling, Anh Minh Tang, Jean-Michel Pereira, Ghazi Hassen and Neda Yavari. 5. Centrifuge Modeling of Energy Foundations, John S. McCartney. Part 2. Numerical Modeling of Energy Geostructures 6. Alternative Uses of Heat-Exchanger Geostructures, Fabrice Dupray, Thomas Mimouni and Lyesse Laloui. 7. Numerical Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Thermoactive Piles Under Cyclic Axial Loading, Maria E. Suryatriyastuti, Hussein Mroueh , Sébastien Burlon and Julien Habert. 8. Energy Geostructures in Unsaturated Soils, John S. McCartney, Charles J.R. Coccia , Nahed Alsherif and Melissa A. Stewart. 9. Energy Geostructures in Cooling-Dominated Climates, Ghassan Anis Akrouch, Marcelo Sanchez and Jean-Louis Briaud. 10. Impact of Transient Heat Diffusion of a Thermoactive Pile on the Surrounding Soil, Maria E. Suryatriyastuti, Hussein Mroueh and Sébastien Burlon. 11. Ground-Source Bridge Deck De-icing Systems Using Energy Foundations, C. Guney Olgun and G. Allen Bowers. Part 3. Engineering Practice 12. Delivery of Energy Geostructures, Peter Bourne-Webb with contributions from Tony Amis, Jean-Baptiste Bernard, Wolf Friedemann, Nico Von Der Hude, Norbert Pralle, Veli Matti Uotinen and Bernhard Widerin. 13. Thermo-Pile: A Numerical Tool for the Design of Energy Piles, Thomas Mimouni and Lyesse Laloui. 14. A Case Study: The Dock Midfield of Zurich Airport, Daniel Pahud. About the Authors Lyesse Laloui is Chair Professor, Head of the Soil Mechanics, Geoengineering and CO2 storage Laboratory and Director of Civil Engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. Alice Di Donna is a researcher at the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland.
Preface xiii Lyesse LALOUI and Alice DI DONNA PART 1. PHYSICAL MODELING OF ENERGY PILES AT DIFFERENT SCALES 1 Chapter 1. Soil Response under Thermomechanical Conditions Imposed by Energy Geostructures 3 Alice DI DONNA and Lyesse LALOUI 1.1. Introduction 4 1.2. Thermomechanical behavior of soils 5 1.2.1. Thermomechanical behavior of clays 6 1.3. Constitutive modeling of the thermomechanical behavior of soils 12 1.3.1. The ACMEG-T model 12 1.4. Acknowledgments 18 1.5. Bibliography 18 Chapter 2. Full-scale In Situ Testing of Energy Piles 23 Thomas MIMOUNI and Lyesse LALOUI 2.1. Monitoring the thermomechanical response of energy piles 23 2.1.1. Measuring strains and temperature along the piles 23 2.1.2. Measuring pile tip compression 27 2.1.3. Monitoring the behavior of the soil 27 2.2. Description of the two full-scale in situ experimental sites 28 2.2.1. Single full-scale test pile 28 2.2.2. Full-scale test on a group of energy piles 31 2.2.3. Testing procedure 32 2.3. Thermomechanical behavior of energy piles 36 2.3.1. General methodology 36 2.3.2. Thermomechanical response of the single test pile 38 2.3.3. Thermomechanical response of a group of energy piles 40 2.4. Conclusions 42 2.5. Bibliography 42 Chapter 3. Observed Response of Energy Geostructures 45 Peter BOURNE-WEBB 3.1. Overview of published observational data sources 45 3.2. Thermal storage and harvesting 46 3.2.1. Overview 46 3.2.2. Energy injection/extraction rates 47 3.2.3. Thermal fields 52 3.3. Thermomechanical effects 58 3.3.1. Overview 58 3.3.2. Structural effects 58 3.3.3. Soil-structure interactions 62 3.4. Summary 65 3.5. Acknowledgments 66 3.6. Bibliography 67 Chapter 4. Behavior of Heat-Exchanger Piles from Physical Modeling 79 Anh Minh TANG, Jean-Michel PEREIRA, Ghazi HASSEN and Neda YAVARI 4.1. Introduction 79 4.2. Physical modeling of pile foundations 80 4.2.1. Boundary conditions 80 4.2.2. Mechanical loading system 81 4.2.3. Monitoring 81 4.2.4. Pile's behavior 82 4.3. Physical modeling of a heat-exchanger pile 83 4.3.1. Experimental setup 83 4.3.2. Mechanical behavior of a pile under thermomechanical loading 85 4.3.3. Heat transfer 89 4.3.4. Soil-pile interface 90 4.3.5. Lessons learned from physical modeling of a heat-exchanger pile 91 4.4. Conclusions 94 4.5. Acknowledgments 94 4.6. Bibliography 94 Chapter 5. Centrifuge Modeling of Energy Foundations 99 John S. MCCARTNEY 5.1. Introduction 99 5.2. Background on thermomechanical soil-structure interaction 100 5.3. Centrifuge modeling concepts 101 5.4. Centrifuge modeling components 101 5.4.1. Centrifuge model fabrication and characterization 101 5.4.2. Experimental setup 103 5.5. Centrifuge modeling tests for semi-floating foundations 105 5.5.1. Soil details 105 5.5.2. Foundation A: isothermal load tests to failure 106 5.5.3. Foundation B: thermomechanical stress-strain modeling 110 5.6. Conclusions 113 5.7. Acknowledgments 113 5.8. Bibliography 114 PART 2. NUMERICAL MODELING OF ENERGY GEOSTRUCTURES 117 Chapter 6. Alternative Uses of Heat-Exchanger Geostructures 119 Fabrice DUPRAY, Thomas MIMOUNI and Lyesse LALOUI 6.1. Small, dispersed foundations for deck de-icing 120 6.1.1. Heat demand and specificities of small foundations 121 6.1.2. Modeling of the pile 122 6.1.3. Results and analysis 126 6.2. Heat-exchanger anchors 131 6.2.1. Technical aspects and possible users 131 6.2.2. Method of investigation 132 6.2.3. Optimizing the heat production 134 6.2.4. Mechanical implications of heat production 135 6.3. Conclusions 136 6.4. Acknowledgments 137 6.5. Bibliography 137 Chapter 7. Numerical Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Thermoactive Piles Under Cyclic Axial Loading 139 Maria E. SURYATRIYASTUTI, Hussein MROUEH, Sébastien BURLON and Julien HABERT 7.1. Introduction 139 7.2. Bearing capacity of a pile under an additional thermal load 140 7.3. A constitutive law of soil-pile interface under cyclic loading: the Modjoin law 143 7.4. Numerical…