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Mirror Images

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Texte du rabatRead what your colleagues said about Mirror Images in pre-publication reviews! [The text] “provides one of the... Lire la suite
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Texte du rabat

Read what your colleagues said about Mirror Images in pre-publication reviews!

[The text] “provides one of the most thorough discussions of writing an argument that I've ever seen. The FRP [Focus, Reader, Purpose] is a very useful heuristic for helping students both read and write arguments. I also find the text does a great job of marrying theory and practice . . . . [I]n other words, it draws on classic rhetoric and contemporary argument theory, but presents it in a way that it accessible and relevant for students . . . . Finally, the text does an excellent job of helping students expand their vision of what actually qualifies as an argument - virtually everything. That alone is quite an accomplishment.”

Jeffrey Andelora, Mesa Community College

“I also like that the authors present multiple ways of analyzing argument and they present them . . . as different ways of framing our thinking. This is effective because students then realize that there isn't one 'right' way to approach analysis of argument.”

Patricia Webb, Arizona State University

“This book's main virtue - a clear progression of steps - makes syllabus-design foolproof.”

Phyllis Frus , Hawaii Pacific University

“The 'Potential Problems in Arguments' chapter is a great idea, and I believe that it would be very useful to students and instructors alike. Pointing out these problem areas before they become actual problems in student papers will enable students to understand what not to do before they do it and understand what they have done when they make these errors.”

Diana C. Gingo, Collin County Community College

“Engaging exercises . . . let students 'try out' their understanding of concepts before they may attempt the more challenging task of writing a sophisticated argument.”

Jo Ann Buck, Guilford Technical Community College

“'Your Writing / Reading Process' gently guides the student to consider revision positively.”

Paula Eschliman, Richland College

“By far the best textbook on argumentative writing.”

Kay Heck, Walters State Community College

“I would argue that this is the best explanation I've read of the revision process in a composition textbook in quite some time.”

Sarah Quirk, Waubonsee Community College



Résumé

Mirror Images is a comprehensive argument rhetoric with readings that explains reading and writing as mirror images of each other and helps students develop skills by intentionally connecting these two processes. 

 

Students learn to analyze written arguments by detecting the writer's audience, purpose, and focus.  Students then mirror this rhetorical thinking as they generate and strengthen their own written arguments.

 

Part One introduces students to the rhetorical concerns of audience, purpose, and context as well as argument strategies such as the Classical Appeals, Toulmin, induction and deduction, and the Rogerian approach.  Part Two emphasizes the writing process in the context of these argumentative purposes and strategies.  Part Three offers concrete instruction for research, writing arguments from sources, and documentation, and Part Four presents five thematic anthology units on business ethics, body image, poverty and wealth, visual rhetoric, and work for students to use as a jumping off place for their own writing.



Contenu

PART I.  ANALYZING ARGUMENT

 

Ch 1.  A Brief Introduction to Argument

Argument in Action

Argument as a Thought Process

Some of the Many Contexts for Argument

                Argument in a Personal Business Context

                Argument in an Advertising Context

                Argument in a Social Commentary Context

                Argument in an Art Context

What Argument Should Do for Us

Trying to Remain Flexible in Your Thinking

Rogerian Argument

Writing as a Process

Students at Work:  Putting Argument to Use

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Arguments in Everyday Life

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.2.  Traditional Means of Establishing Context and Discovering Your Argument

The Appeal to Personal Credibility (the Ethical Appeal)

                What Do You Bring to an Argument?

The Appeal to Emotions (the Pathetic Appeal)

The Appeal to Reason (the Logical Appeal)

                Students at Work:  Thinking about Persuasive Appeals

Inductive Reasoning

Seeking a Reliable Induction Conclusion

Deductive Reasoning

Seeking the Valid Deductive Conclusion

The Toulmin System

                Using the Toulmin System to Analyze an Argument

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Using the Classical Appeals

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.3.  An Argument's Anatomy

The Thinking Behind an Argument

The Rhetorical Triangle and the Argument Concept

The Thinking Within an Argument

The Claim

                Types of Claims

Reasons and Evidence

Concessions and Rebuttals

Students at Work:  Analysis of the Structure of a Student Argument

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Using the “Parts” of Arguments

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.4.  Using the Argument Concept an Argument's Plan

The Argument Concept

The Argument Concept and How it Can Work for You

The Argument Concept in Both Reading and Writing

How the Topic's Focus Influences an Argument's Design

How the Potential Reader Influences an Argument's Design

                How the Intended Purpose Influences an Argument's Design

Altering Any Part of the Context

Students at Work:  Using the Argument Concept

The Move from Argument Concept to the Argument's Claim

Characteristics of Claims as Sentences

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Arguments from Refined Argument Concepts

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.5.  The Potential Problems in Arguments

Insufficient Evidence

Atypical Evidence

Citing Improper Authorities

Subjectivism

Appeal to a Majority

Personal Attack on the Opposition

False Cause                            

Begging the Question

Non Sequitor

False Dilemma

                Students at Work:  Re-examining an Argument for Potential Fallacies

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Keeping an Eye Out for Fallacies

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.6.  Using the Argument Concept to Read the Arguments of Others

An Example of the Need for Critical Reading

                Students at Work:  Pete Asks Critical Questions about His Source

Causes of Superficial, Less Than Critical Reading

“Active” versus “Passive” Reading Practices

“Reversing” the Argument Concept

“There's No Future in Lady Luck,” Linda Chavez

“Traces of Man,” Cedomir Kostovic

“Margaret Fuller Slack,” Edgar Lee Masters

“College Brings Alienation,” John Gonzales

“A Hanging,” George Orwell

Clips from Bowling for Columbine, Michael Moore

“Severing the Human Connection,” H. Bruce Miller

“Hollywood Poison Factory,” Michael Medved

“English Only” (op-ad)

“Erosion,” Terry Tempest Williams

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  An Overall Analysis of Arguments

Reflections on the Chapter

 

PART II.  DEVELOPING ARGUMENTS

 

Ch.7.  Looking in the Mirror and Beyond-Generating Topics

How to Generate a Productive Topic for an Argument

                Topics to Avoid

                Topics to Pursue

Methods to Inspire Writers' Choices

                Clustering

                Free Writing

                Looping

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Topic Exploration

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.8.  Seeking, Sorting, and Selecting Outside Source Material

Turning to “Outside” Sources for Support

How to Select the Best Outside Sources for Your Argument

Sources Other than Databases

How to Select the Best Sources

“Triangulation”-An Attempt at Validity

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  A Status Report

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.9.  Envisioning the Complete Argument as a Pre-writing Process

The Need for a Plan

An Ineffective Approach:  Pasting Together a “Report”

A Writer's Guide to the Envisioned Plan

                The Envisioning Process

                Considering Your Reader's Potential Knowledge

                Considering Your Reader's Established Values

                Considering Your Reader's Opposition to Your Claim                             

                Deciding What to Include

                Adjusting Your Envisioned Plan

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Envisioning Your Argument

Professional Sample of Envisioned Plan and Final Argument

Students at Work:  A Student's Plan and Corresponding Argument

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.10.  Refining the Purposes for Your Argument

Arguing for the Quality of a Product, Behavior, or Work of Art

Do Evaluative Arguments Allow for Fairness?

How Evaluative Arguments are Often Organized

Students at Work:  The Primarily Evaluative Purpose

Arguing Solutions to Problems

                Recognizing and Identifying a Problem

Exploring and Evaluating the Possible Solution(s) to a Problem

Do Problem/Solution Arguments Allow for Fairness?

                Selecting and Defending a Solution to a Problem

                Students at Work:  The Primarily Problem/Solution Purpose

Arguing Causes(s) and Effect(s)

                Do Cause/Effect Arguments Allow for Fairness?

                Students at Work:  The Primarily Cause/Effect Purpose

Arguing to Maintain or Change a Policy

                Do Policy Arguments Allow for Fairness?

                Students at Work:  The Primarily Policy Purpose

Discovering Your Own Arguments: Refining Your Envisioned Plan

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.11.  Drafting the Sections of Your Argument - Illustration, Detail, & Outside Sources   

The Need for Support - Getting Your Reader to “Buy In”

The Power of Illustration

                Students at Work:  The Need for Illustration

Students at Work:   Enriching Illustration

                Examples from Personal Experience      

Integrating Outside Source Material with Your Argument

                Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Direct Quotation

                Writing an Accurate and Adequate Summary

                Students at Work: 

                Creating a Paraphrase

                Students at Work: 

                Using Direct Quotations

Guidelines for Integrating Source Material

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Practice in Integrating Outside Source Material with Your Voice

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Drafting Your Argument

Reflections on the Chapter

 

PART III.  DOCUMENTING AND POLISHING AN ARGUMENT

 

Ch.12.  Documenting Outside Sources

The Purposes of Documentation

An Important Caution about Documentation

The Basic Processes of Documenting Sources

External Documentation (Bibliographical Information)

                The Three Responsibilities of Documentation

                External Documentation of Electronic Sources

Internal (In-text) Documentation

                Students at Work:  Sample MLA and APA Papers for Examination

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Reviewing and Revising Your Source Use

Reflections on the Chapter

 

Ch.13.  Revising the Written Argument

Basic Revising Advice

                Revising Focus on Reader and Purpose

Students at Work:  Revision Begins

Students at Work: Second Draft

                Revising the Amount and Quality of Evidence

Students at Work:  Revising the Amount and Quality of Evidence

                Revising Organization

Students at Work:  Revising Organization             

                Top Ten Editing Errors to Avoid

Students at Work:  Revising for Language Correctness

Discovering Your Own Arguments:  Examining Drafts for Language Correctness

Reflections on the Chapter

 

PART IV.  Additional Readings for Analysis

 

Unit 1.  Business Ethics

“The Ethics of Business Schools,” Katherine Mangan

“They Call Their Boss a Hero,” Michael Ryan

“Executive Decisions,” from Multinational Monitor

“Greed Despoils Capitalism,” Barbara Wilder

“The Upside of Downsizing,” Art Buchwald

Unit One Questions to Guide Analysis

 

Unit 2.  Our Body Images

“I am a Barbie Girl,” Kate Epstein

“Wearing Tights,” from Real Boys' Voices

“Fat Girls (Don't) Dance,” Sharleen Jonasson

“Just One Look,” Kim Campbell

“The Muscle Mystique,” Barbara Kingsolver

Unit Two Questions to Guide Analysis

 

Unit 3.  Poverty and Wealth

Nobel Prize Lecture, Jimmy Carter (in text)

“The Fight of Our Lives,”  Bill Moyer

“What is Poverty,”  Jo Goodwin Parker

“Helping Binyam, When His Mother Won't,” Nicholas D. Kristof

“The Singer Solution to World Poverty,” Peter Singer

“Are You Too Rich if Others Are Too Poor,” Marjorie Kelly

Unit Three Questions to Guide Analysis

 

Unit 4.  Visual Rhetoric

“An Argument for the Superiority of Printed Media over Visual Media,” Scott

Aniol

“A Modern Perspective on Graffiti,” Killian Tobin

“Learning to Love PowerPoint,” David Byrne

“PowerPoint is Evil,” Edward Tufte

“Visual Culture and Health Posters:  Anti-Smoking Campaigns,” Profiles in Science

“American Progress,” John Gast

Unit Four Questions to Guide Analysis

 

Unit 5.  Working in America

“All Work, No Play,” Claudia Brinson

“The Work Addict in the Family,” Diane Fassel

“Other Factors More Important in Job Stress,” Melissa C. Stoppler

“A Working Community,” Ellen Goodman

“Goodbye to the Work Ethic,” Barbara Ehrenreich

From Nickel and Dimed, Barbara Ehrenreich

Unit Five Questions to Guide Analysis

 

Informations sur le produit

Titre: Mirror Images
Auteur:
Code EAN: 9780205530731
ISBN: 978-0-205-53073-1
Format: Couverture cartonnée
Editeur: Pearson Academic
Genre: Ecole et didactique
nombre de pages: 480
Année: 2008

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