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Annals of Theoretical Psychology

I have been involved in constructing a unified theory for many years, in considering the state of psychology's unity-disunity, and... Lire la suite
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Description

I have been involved in constructing a unified theory for many years, in considering the state of psychology's unity-disunity, and in generally attempt ing to persuade our profession to work on its unification. In this work I have had the opportunity to become acquainted with the works of a number of other psychologists whose statements indicated that they had something to say on these topics. I saw also that it would be very productive for psychology to have these individuals address themselves to psychology's disunity-unity, consid ered as a problem that should be confronted and addressed. In 1983 I began to indicate that it was my intention to devote a book to the topic, as seen through the eyes of a group of prominent psychologists concerned with related issues. It was very fortunate from my standpoint that Joseph Royce and later Leendert Mos, who were editing this series, were interested in this book. I accepted the former's invitation to do within the present series the book I had planned. Although I must assume responsibility for selection of the contributors, for the book's organization, and for the first editing of their papers for substance, Pro fessor Mos offered to help in an editorial capacity and I am most grateful for his contributions to the formal editing. The volume is much improved as a result of his careful efforts, which in one case involved rewriting material.

Contenu

I. Unification (Uninomic) Psychology.- 1. Unified Positivism: Philosophy for the Revolution to Unity.- 1. Characteristics of the Modern Disunified Science.- 1.1. Theory-Produced Disorganization.- 1.2. Schism-Produced Disorganization.- 1.3. Field-Produced Disorganization.- 1.4. Methodology-Produced Disorganization.- 1.5. Philosophy-Produced Disorganization.- 1.6. Sociology-Produced Disorganization.- 1.7. Quantity-Produced Disorganization.- 2. Some Basic Tenets of Unified Positivism.- 2.1. Logical Positivism's Ultimate Truth versus Unified Positivism's Progressive Objectivity.- 2.2. Logical Positivism's Axiomatic Dichotomy versus Unified Positivism's Progressive Development.- 2.3. Logical Positivism's Reductionism versus Unified Positivism's Focus on Unity.- 2.4. Logic and Fact: The Whole of Science?.- 3. The Positivist Revolution and the Second Revolution for Unity.- 3.1. Investment for the Revolution.- 4. The Unity Assumption.- 5. Beginning the Second Revolution: Directions and Methods for Unity.- 5.1. Unification by Citation.- 5.2. Unification by Research Review.- 5.3. Unified Theory: Bridging.- 5.3.1. The Unifying Theory Review.- 5.3.2. Unifying Theory for Schism Resolution.- 5.3.3. Unifying Theory to Resolve Method and Apparatus Clashes.- 5.3.4. Unifying Phenomena: A Basic Kind of Theory.- 5.4. Unified Theory: Grand Variety.- 6. The Metascience of the Second Revolution.- 7. The Sociology of the Second Revolution.- 8. Disunified Psychology and the Present Volume.- 9. References.- II. The Place of Division in Unification.- 2. A Good Divorce Is Better Than a Bad Marriage.- 1. The Mind-Body Problem in Psychology.- 1.1. Cartesian Dualism.- 1.1.1. The Subject Matter of Psychology.- 1.1.2. The Nature of Science.- 2. Psychology as a Science of Consciousness.- 2.1. Self-Observation.- 2.1.1. Wundtian Psychology.- 2.1.2. Structuralism.- 2.1.3. Wundt's versus Titchener's Views of Introspection.- 2.1.4. William James.- 2.1.5. Functionalism.- 2.1.6. Psychoanalysis.- 3. Psychology as a Behavioral Science.- 3.1. The Role of the Mind in Methodological Behaviorism.- 3.1.1. Clark L. Hull.- 3.1.2. Edward C. Tolman.- 3.1.3. B. F. Skinner.- 3.1.4. Donald O. Hebb.- 4. Mind and/or Behavior?.- 5. Understanding.- 5.1. Deductive Explanation.- 5.2. Interpretive Consistency.- 5.3. Behavioral Control.- 5.4. Intuitive Knowing.- 5.5. Consensual Agreement and Modes of Understanding.- 6. Psychology and Society.- 6.1. Descriptive versus Prescriptive Views of Psychology.- 6.2. Psychology and Ideology.- 7. Psychology and Social Policies.- 8. General Conclusions.- 9. References.- 3. The Growth of a Unified Scientific Psychology: Ordeal by Quackery.- 1. Psychology's Two Cultures.- 1.1. The Place of Values in Science.- 2. The Subjectivity of Knowledge.- 3. Humanism versus Science: A Necessary Disunification.- 4. The Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology: A Necessary Unification.- 4.1. Why Psychology Needs a Science of Individual Differences.- 5. References.- III. Conceptual Schemas for Unification.- 4. Toward the Integration of Individual Psychodynamic Theories and Family Systems Theories.- 1. Reframing of Psychodynamic Theory.- 2. Circular and Linear Causality.- 2.1. The Role of History.- 2.2. The Mutual Determination of "Inner" and "Outer ": An Illustration.- 3. The Importance of Irony.- 4. A Cumulative View of Development.- 5. Transactional and Nontransactional Visions of Psychodynamics.- 6. The Centrality of Anxiety.- 6.1. Exposure.- 6.2. The Principle of Gradualism.- 6.3. Mastery.- 6.4. Insight.- 7. Overcoming Skill Deficits.- 7.1. "Specializing".- 8. Neutrality and the Opposition to Active Intervention.- 8.1. Divided Loyalties and "Psychic Reality".- 9. A Transactional View of Transference.- 10. Where Does Therapy Occur?.- 11. References.- 5. Behavioral Intervention: An Old Aspiration with a New Profile.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Crisis and Social Dimensions: Two Key Expressions for Understanding Contemporary Psychology.- 2.1. The Disenchantment with the Classical Scientific Method.- 2.2. Paradigms, Theoretical Models, and Psychological Language.- 2.3. Extension to New Areas of Work in Psychology.- 2.4. A Reorientation: Providing Social Context for the Psychological Processes.- 3. Foundations of the Psychology of Intervention.- 3.1. Social Validity.- 3.2. Representative Behavior Sampling and Resolving the Basic-Applied Schism.- 3.3. The Analysis of Group Data.- 3.4. Evaluating Program Effects on Paraprofessionals.- 3.5. Conceptual Influences.- 4. The Term Intervention.- 5. Notational Delimitation.- 6. References.- 6. Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Dissonance Theories: Producing Unification through the Unifying Theory Review.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Psychoanalytic Theory: Primary Features.- 3. Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Primary Features.- 4. Overlap.- 4.1. Similarities at Least Partially Recognized.- 4.1.1. Negative Tension State (Anxiety versus Dissonance).- 4.1.2. Homeostasis.- 4.1.3. Defense Mechanisms versus Modes of Resolution.- 4.1.4. Awareness-consciousness of the conflict.- 4.1.5. Awareness-consciousness of defense mechanisms and modes of resolution.- 4.1.6. Self-concept, Responsibility, Foreseeability, and Commitment.- 4.2. Additional Unrecognized Similarities.- 4.2.1. Components or Elements in Discrepancy.- 4.2.2. Tolerance for the Negative Tension State.- 4.2.3. Quantitative, Mathematical Level.- 4.2.4. Defense Mechanisms versus Modes of Resolution.- 4.2.5. Selection of Processes.- 4.2.6. Time Dimension and Repetition.- 4.2.7. Neurosis and Therapy.- 4.2.8. Regret.- 5. Differences.- 5.1. Personal and Zeitgeist Influences.- 5.2. Influences of Different Problems and Subject Matter.- 5.3. Influences of Different Subjects.- 5.4. Influences of Different Methods.- 6. The Purpose of Unifying Theory Reviews.- 6.1. Reversing the Trend of Accumulating Artificial Diversity.- 6.1.1. Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Dissonance Theory.- 6.1.2. Prototype.- 6.2. Implications for Future Theory Development.- 6.3. The Teaching Function of Unifying Theoretical Reviews.- 6.4. Unifying Theoretical Review Is Not a Unified Theory.- 7. Conclusion.- 8. References.- 7. The Psychological Level of Organization in Nature and Interdependencies among Major Psychological Concepts.- 1. Conceptual Fragmentation: The Nature of the Problem.- 1.1. The Conceptual Structure of American Psychology.- 1.2. Why Is American Psychology Conceptually Fragmented?.- 1.3. Why Should We Try to Systematize Psychology?.- 1.4. Prescriptions for Unity.- 2. The Psychological Level of Organization and Its Conceptual Structure.- 2.1. An Overview of Major Concepts and Assumptions.- 2.2. The Psychological as an Information Domain.- 2.3. Behavior and the Psychological Domain.- 2.4. Structural and Functional Aspects of the Psychological Domain.- 2.4.1. The Information Is Relevant to the Total Person.- 2.4.2. All Information Is Displayed within a Three-Dimensional Matrix.- 2.4.3. There Is Always Change.- 2.4.4. The Structural Features of Consciousness Are Redundantly Represented.- 2.4.5. There Is a Focus-Background Distinction.- 2.4.6. There Is a Self-World Distinction.- 2.4.7. The Informational Subdomains Having to Do with the Body (the Affective), the Immediate Surround (the Perceptual), Interactions between Body and Surround (the Perceptual and Affective), and the Cognitive Realm Can Be Readily Differentiated.- 2.4.8. Much of the Structure of Consciousness Derives from Person-Produced, but Group-Shared, Information.- 2.4.9. There Are Markers in Consciousness.- 2.4.10. There Is Information That Influences Behavioral Probabilities.- 2.4.11. Recapitulation.- 3. Implications for Research.- 4. Curricular Implications.- 5. References.- IV. Metatheory in Unification.- 8. Unity and Diversity in the Behavioral and Natural Sciences.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. The Branches.- 1.2. Methods.- 1.3. The Theories.- 2. The Unity of Physics.- 2.1. The Branches.- 2.2. Methods.- 2.3. The Theories.- 3. The Unity of Biology.- 3.1. The Branches.- 3.2. Methods.- 3.3. The Theories.- 4. On Psychology.- 4.1. The S, P, and R Variables.- 4.1.1. Stimulus Variables.- 4.1.2. Personality Variables.- 4.1.3. Response Variables.- 4.2. Methods of Scientific Psychology.- 4.3. Problems with the P Variables.- 4.4. Determinism and Free Will.- 5. Conclusion.- 6. References.- 9. Toward a Unified Psychological Science: The Meaning of Behavior.- 1. The Present Status of Psychology.- 1.1. A Plethoric Science.- 1.2. A Frustrating Science.- 1.3. A Divided Science.- 2. The Future of Psychology.- 2.1. A Young Science.- 2.2. A Complex Science.- 3. The Basic Dualism.- 4. Dualism and Unity.- 4.1. The Historical Development of Psychology.- 4.2. Restrictions on Unity.- 5. The Meaning of Behavior.- 6. The Two Commensurate Paradigms.- 7. The Verification of Private Experience.- 8. The Convergent Lines of Psychology.- 8.1. Psychology, Consciousness, and Cognition.- 8.2. Psychology and Behavior.- 9. Psychology and Philosophy.- 10. Behavior and Metabehavior.- 11. Toward a Unified Psychological Science.- 11.1. Science, Logic, and Facts.- 11.2. Science as Historical Research Programs.- 11.3. The Way for Unification.- 12. References.- 10. A Strategy for Developing Unifying Theory in Psychology.- 1. The Need for Unifying Theory in Psychology.- 2. Psychology Is Conceptually Pluralistic.- 3. How Shall We Deal with Theoretical Pluralism?.- 4. A Tentative Resolution.- 4.1. On Empirical Laws.- 5. Epistemic Styles and Metatheory.- 6. The Problem of Level of Generality.- 7. A Case Study of the Bottom-Up Strategy.- 8. References.- 11. Disunity in Psychology: Implications for and from Sociology and Anthropology.- 1. Psychology and the Social Sciences.- 2. The Implications of Psychology's Disunity for Sociology and Anthropology.- 2.1. Psychologists as Lenders.- 2.2. Social Scientists as Borrowers.- 2.3. Implicit Propositions.- 3. Psychological Aspects of Social Change and Economic Development.- 3.1. Emphasis on Motivation.- 3.2. Emphasis on Personality.- 3.3. Emphasis on Behavior Modification.- 3.4. Emphasis on Entrepreneurs.- 3.5. Conclusion.- 4. The Disunified Status of Sociology.- 4.1. Focus I: What Are Paradigms, and Are They Applicable to Sociology?.- 4.2. Focus II: What Is the Nature of Paradigms in Modern Sociology?.- 4.3. Conclusion.- 5. The Disunified Status of Anthropology.- 6. The Implications of Sociology and Anthropology for the Unification of Psychology.- 6.1. Stratification: Implications for Psychology.- 6.2. Cultural Ecology: Implications for Psychology.- 6.3. Community Development: Implications for Psychology.- 7. Conclusion.- 8. References.- 12. A Comparative Analysis of the General Theories of Modern Behaviorism: Unification through Generational Advance.- 1. The Disunity of Modern Behaviorism.- 1.1. Social Learning Theory as Cognitive Learning Theory.- 1.2. Radical Behaviorism and Paradigmatic Behaviorism: A Competition among Subschools or a Generation Gap?.- 2. Some Generational Differences between Radical Behaviorism and Paradigmatic Behaviorism.- 2.1. Differences Regarding the Facts to Be Considered.- 2.2. Differences with Respect to Theory.- 2.3. Differences in Research Methodology.- 3. Toward Unification of Behavioral Theory.- 3.1. The Concept of Generational Advance.- 3.2. Some Implications of Paradigmatic Behaviorism's Philosophy of Unity for Behavioral Psychology.- 4. Comparative Theory Analysis.- 5. References.- 13. Integrity or Unity.- of Earlier Volumes.- Author Index.

Détails sur le produit

Titre: Annals of Theoretical Psychology
Éditeur: Leendert P. Mos Arthur W. Staats
Code EAN: 9781461564584
ISBN: 1461564581
Format: Couverture cartonnée
nombre de pages: 384
Poids: 579g
Taille: H235mm x B155mm x T20mm
Année: 2012
Auflage: 1987.

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