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Tailored Metal Catalysts

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Well tailored metal catalysts are catalysts of the new generation resulting from scientific development at the boundary between ho... Weiterlesen
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Well tailored metal catalysts are catalysts of the new generation resulting from scientific development at the boundary between homogeneous and hetero geneous chemistry. The main factors involved in making tailored metal catalysts are not those of traditional impregnation in which the chemistry is in general unknown and ill-defined, or of simple ion exchange which involves long-range forces with little control on the local structure through definite and special bond direction. Tailored Metal Catalysts thus has a rather different emphasis from normal review publications in the field of catalysis. Here we concentrate more on the distinct surface chemistry and catalytic properties of important established materials with well-characterized active structures or precursors, although at the same time providing a systematic presentation of relevant data. Many pioneering works have been undertaken in the field of tailored metal catalysts since the early research on polymer-attached homogeneous metal complexes by the British Petroleum Company Ltd. and the Mobil Oil Corpora tion around 1969; transition metal complexes attached on polymers by Grubbs (1971), Heinemann (1971), Manassen (1971), Pittman (1971), Bursian et al. (1972), Kagan (1973), Bailar (1974); transition metal complexes attached on inorganic oxides by Allum et al. (1972), Ballard (1973), Candlin and Thomas (1974), Murrell (1974), Yermakov (1974); metal carbonyls/polymers by Moffat (1970); metal carbonyls/inorganic oxides by Parkyns (1965), Davie et al. (1969), Banks et al. (1969), Howe (1973), Burwell (1975); metal carbonyl clusters/ polymers by Colhnan (1972); metal carbonyl clusters/inorganic oxides by Robertson and Webb (1974), Anderson (1974), Smith et al. (1975).

Inorganic Oxide-attached Metal Catalysts.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Features of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts.- 3. General Aspects of the Development of Attached Metal Catalysts.- 3.1. First Generation Attached Catalysts.- 3.2. Second Generation Attached Catalysts.- 3.3. Third Generation Attached Catalysts.- 4. Physical Techniques for the Characterization of Surface-attached Species.- 5. Polymers and Inorganic Oxides as Supports.- 6. Surface Hydroxyl Groups on Inorganic Oxides.- 6.1. Silica.- 6.2. Alumina.- 6.3. Silicaalumina.- 6.4. Zeolites.- 6.5. Titania.- 6.6. Other Inorganic Oxides.- 7. The Functionalization of Inorganic Oxide Surfaces.- 7.1. Silica.- 7.2. Alumina and Zeolites.- 7.3. Stannic Oxide and Carbon.- 8. Attached Metal Complex Catalysts.- 8.1. Metal Complexes Attached via Functional Ligands.- 8.2. Transition Metal Complexes Attached Directly to Inorganic Oxide Surfaces.- 9. Tailored Metal Catalysts.- 9.1. Multistep Attached Metal Catalysts.- 9.2. Transition Metal Hydride Catalysts.- 9.3. Attached Metal Oxide Catalysts.- 9.3.1. Surface Molybdenum Monomers.- 9.3.2. Surface Molybdenum Dimers.- 9.3.3. Oriented Mo03 Phases on Graphite.- 9.3.4. Surface Chromium Monomers and Dimers.- 9.3.5. Two-dimensional Surface CrIII Phase Attached onto SiO2.- 9.3.6. Attached Tungsten Monomers.- 9.3.7. Surface Cobalt Species.- 10. Concluding Remarks.- References.- Polymer-attached Catalysts.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Polymer-anchored Catalysts.- 2.1. Preparation and Characterization.- 2.2. The Influence of the Polymer Matrix on Catalysis.- 2.2.1. Isolation of Active Sites.- 2.2.2. Promotion of Coordinative Unsaturation.- 2.2.3. Concentration of the Ligand.- 2.2.4. Stabilization of Catalysts.- 2.2.5. Effect of Substrate Size and Shape on Selectivity.- 2.3. Effect of the Polymer 'Field'.- 2.3.1. Hydrophobic 'Field'.- 2.3.2. Electrostatic 'Field'.- 2.3.3. Asymmetric 'Field'.- 2.4. Multifunctional Catalysts.- 2.4.1. Cooperative Catalysis.- 2.4.2. Multistep Catalysis.- 3. Polymer-protected Colloidal Catalysts.- 3.1. Preparation and Characterization.- 3.2. Characteristic Properties of Colloidal Catalysts.- 3.2.1. Surface Area.- 3.2.2. Particle Size.- 3.2.3. Effect of Protective Polymers.- 3.3. Colloidal Catalysts Protected by Functionalized Polymers.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- The Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts from Mononuclear Carbonyl Complexes on Inorganic Supports.- General Aspects of Catalyst Preparation.- 2.1. Support Materials.- 2.1.1. Silica.- 2.1.2. Alumina.- 2.1.3. Zeolites.- 2.1.4. Other Supports.- 2.2. Introduction of the Carbonyl Complex.- 2.3. Catalyst Activation.- 3. Group VI Carbonyl Complexes.- 3.1. Preparation and Characterization.- 3.1.1. Mo(CO)6-Alumina.- 3.1.2. Cr(CO)6-Alumina.- 3.1.3. W(CO)6-Alumina.- 3.1.4. Mo(CO)6-Silica.- 3.1.5. Cr(CO)6-Silica.- 3.1.6. W(CO)6-Silica.- 3.1.7. Mo(CO)6-Zeolite Y.- 3.1.8. Cr(CO)6-Zeolite Y.- 3.1.9. W(CO)6-Zeolite Y.- 3.1.10. Mo(CO)6-Magnesia.- 3.1.11. Cr(CO)6- and W(CO)6 Magnesia.- 3.2. Catalytic Properties.- 3.2.1. Olefin Metathesis.- 3.2.2. Olefin Polymerization.- 3.2.3. Olefin Hydrogenation.- 3.2.4. Hydrogenolysis of Alkanes.- 3.2.5. Deuterium Exchange Reactions.- 3.2.6. Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide.- 3.2.7. Hydrodesulphurization.- 4. Group VIII Carbonyl Complexes.- 4.1. Preparation and Characterization.- 4.1.1. Fe(CO)5-Alumina.- 4.1.2. Fe(CO)5-Magnesia.- 4.1.3. Fe(CO)5-Zeolite Y.- 4.1.4. Fe(CO)5-Graphite.- 4.1.5. Ni(CO)4-Alumina.- 4.1.6. Ni(CO)4-Zeolite.- 4.2. Catalytic Properties.- 5. Group V Carbonyl Complexes.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- 7. Literature Update.- References.- Surface-supported Metal Clusters and their Catalysis in CO-based Reactions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Preparation and Characterization of Surface-supported Metal Clusters.- 2.1. Rhodium and Platinum Carbonyl Clusters Impregnated on Metal Oxides.- 2.2. Ruthenium, Osmium and Iridium Carbonyl Clusters Impregnated on Metal Oxides.- 2.3. Iron, Cobalt and Nickel Carbonyl Clusters Impregnated on Metal Oxides.- 2.4. Zeolite-entrapped Cluster Catalysts.- 2.5. Reactivity and Catalysis of Surface-supported Metal Cluster Species.- 2.6. Bimetallic Clusters Impregnated on Metal Oxides.- 3. Selectivity Aspects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Synthesis with Supported Metal Carbonyls.- 4. Carbonylation Reactions Catalyzed by Cluster-impregnated Catalysts.- 4.1. Activities and Selectivities in Ethylene and Propylene Hydro- formylation Catalyzed by Cluster-derived Catalysts from Different Carbonyl Clusters on Zinc Oxide.- 4.2. Effect of Metal Oxide Support on Catalytic Behavior of Rhodium Clusters.- 4.3. Bimetallic RhodiumCobalt and Cobalt Carbonyl Clusters Supported on Zinc Oxide and Carbon.- 5. Synthesis of Oxygenated Carbon Compounds from Synthesis Gas.- 5.1. Rhodium Carbonyl Cluster-derived Catalysts in CO-H2 Reactions.- 5.2. The Role of Bifunctional Metal Oxides in Modifying the Formation of Oxygenated Species by Rhodium Cluster-impregnated Catalysts.- 5.3. Bimetallic RhCo Cluster-derived Catalysts in COH2 Conversion.- 5.4. Methanol Synthesis by Rhodium, Platinum and Iridium Cluster-impregnated Catalysts.- References.- Asymmetrically Modified Nickel Catalysts.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Considerations in Reactions Relating to MNi.- 2.1. Stereo-differentiating Reactions.- 2.2. Catalysts for Enantio-differentiating Hydrogenation Reactions.- 3. MNi as a Practical Enantio-differentiating Hydrogenation Catalyst.- 3.1. Development and Improvement of Catalyst and Reaction Conditions.- 3.1.1. The Discovery of MNi.- 3.1.2. Modification Variables.- 3.1.3. Preparation Variables of the Metal Catalyst.- 3.1.4. Reaction Variables.- 3.1.5. Supplementary Modifying Reagents.- 3.1.6. Preparation of TANaBrMRNi and its Use for the Hydrogenation of MAA.- 3.2. Application of MNi for the Preparation of Optically Pure Materials.- 3.2.1. Hydrogenation of ?-Ketoester.- 3.2.2. Hydrogenation of ?-Diketones.- 3.2.3. Hydrogenation of Miscellaneous Carbonyl Compounds.- 4. MNi, its Structure and Mode of Action.- 4.1. Enantio-differentiating and Hydrogenation Steps in the Reaction Path.- 4.2. Mode of Adsorption of Modifying Reagent on Nickel Catalysts.- 4.2.1. ?-Hydroxy Acids.- 4.2.2. ?-Amino Acids.- 4.3. Enantio-differentiating and Non-enantio-differentiating Sites on MNi.- 4.3.1. Surface Condition of Catalyst and Proportion of Enantio-differentiating Sites.- 4.3.2. Control of Non-enantio-face Differentiating Sites by Partial Poisoning.- 4.4. Mode of Enantio-face Differentiation on MNi.- 5. Conclusions.- References.


Titel: Tailored Metal Catalysts
EAN: 9789027718662
ISBN: 9027718660
Format: Fester Einband
Herausgeber: Springer Netherlands
Anzahl Seiten: 346
Gewicht: 685g
Größe: H241mm x B160mm x T23mm
Jahr: 1985
Untertitel: Englisch
Auflage: 1986

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