This volume is based in part upon the proceedings of the Calcium Theme held during the 67th Annual Meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, which took place in Chicago, AprillO-lS, 1983. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics had the primary responsibility for organizing the scientific program with the assistance of other member societies, including the American Physiology Society, American Association of Pathologists, and American Institute of Nutrition. The purpose of the Calcium Theme was to review progress in the diverse areas of investigation bearing on the ubiquitous role of calcium in biological systems. In addition to contributions from those participating in the Theme, this volume also includes a number of invited papers that were added to fill certain voids in topics covered. The authors were selected because they are investigators active in the mainstream of their particular research area, possessing the acumen to analyze cogently not only their own recent findings but also to relate these findings to their respective area. New information as well as reviews of current concepts generally highlight the individual contributions. Undoubtedly, some readers may argue with the emphasis made and/or the conclusions reached on individual topics. In such cases, other volumes will hopefully provide a forum for alternative points of view. Due to the broad scope of subjects covered and the large number of contributions, the papers have been arranged in three sections.
A. Metabolic and Functional aspects of Calcium Action.- I. General Aspects of Calcium and Cell Function.- 1. Historical and Biological Aspects of Calcium Action.- 2. Calcium Ion: A Synarchic and Mercurial But Minatory Messenger.- 3. Intracellular Calcium as a Second Messenger: What's so Special about Calcium?.- II. Roles of Phosphoinositides in Calcium-Regulated Systems.- 4. Calcium-Mobilizing Receptors: Membrane Phosphoinositides and Signal Transduction.- 5. Platelet Response in Relation to Metabolism of Inositides and Protein Phosphorylation.- 6. Receptor-Mediated Changes in Hepatocyte Phosphoinositide Metabolism: Mechanism and Significance.- 7. Hormonal Regulation of Phosphoinositide Metabolism in Rat Hepatocytes.- 8. Implication of Phosphoinositides in Receptor-Mediated Stimulation of Phospholipid Labeling.- 9. Calcium and Receptor-Mediated Phosphoinositide Breakdown in Exocrine Gland Cells.- III. Stimulus-Secretion Coupling.- 10. Calcium and Stimulus-Secretion Coupling in Pancreatic Acinar Cell.- 11. Glucose Regulation of Insulin Release Involves Intracellular Sequestration of Calcium.- 12. Role of Calcium in Stimulus-Secretion Coupling in Bovine Adrenal Medullary Cells.- 13. Calcium and Transmitter Release: Modulation by Adenosine Derivatives.- 14. The Role of Calcium and Osmosis in Membrane Fusion.- IV. Calcium Regulation of Hemopoietic Cells.- 15. Activation and Desensitization of Receptors for IgE on Tumor Basophils.- 16. Relationship between Calcium, Arachidonic Acid Metabolites, and Neutrophil Activation.- 17. Receptor-Controlled Phosphatidate Synthesis during Acid Hydrolase Secretion from Platelets.- 18. Calcium and Diacylglycerol: Separable and Interacting Intracellular Activators in Human Platelets.- 19. Protein Phosphorylation and Calcium as Mediators in Human Platelets.- 20. Na+ and Ca2+ Fluxes and Differentiation of Transformed Cells.- V. Calcium as a Regulator of Membrane Permeability.- 21. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Bullfrog Sympathetic Ganglion Cells.- 22. Electrophysiological Evidence for Increased Calcium-Mediated Potassium Conductance by Low-Dose Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs.- 23. Neurochemical Studies on the Effects of Ethanol on Calcium-Stimulated Potassium Transport.- 24. Role of Calcium in the Regulation of Sodium Permeability in the Kidney.- VI. Calcium as a Regulator of Neuronal Function.- 25. Neuronal Calcium as a Site of Action for Depressant Drugs.- 26. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs and Synaptosomal Calcium Transport.- 27. Barbiturate and Opiate Actions on Calcium-Dependent Action Potentials and Currents of Mouse Neurons in Cell Culture.- 28. Effects of Depressant Drugs on SodiumCalcium Exchange in Resealed Synaptic Membranes.- 29. Calcium Extrusion by Retinal Rods Modifies Light Sensitivity of Dark Current.- 30. Mechanisms of Pharmacologically Altering Calmodulin Activity.- 31. The Purified Calcium-Pumping ATPase of Plasma Membrane: Structure-Function Relationships.- 32. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins That Control the Cytoskeleton by a Flip-Flop Mechanism.- 33. Calmodulin-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase Activity: Interaction with Guanyl Nucleotides and Dopamine.- 34. Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Phosphorylation in the Nervous System.- 35. Calcineurin, a Calmodulin-Stimulated Protein Phosphatase.- B. Calcium and the Regulation of Muscle Contractility.- VIII. Calcium and Skeletal Muscle Contractility.- 36. Calcium Channels in Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle.- 37. Mechanisms of Calcium Release in Skinned Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Fibers.- 38. Isotropic Components of Antipyrylazo III Signals from Frog Skeletal Muscle Fibers.- 39. Ion Movements Associated with Calcium Release and Uptake in the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- IX. Calcium and Cardiac Contractility.- 40. Role of Calcium in Heart Function in Health and Disease: 100 Years of Progress.- 41. Calcium Both Activates and Inactivates Calcium Release from Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 42. Routes of Calcium Flux in Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- X. Calcium and Calcium Antagonists in Smooth Muscle.- 43. Calcium and Myogenic or Stretch-Dependent Vascular Tone.- 44. Chemical Skinning: A Method for Study of Calcium Transport by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Vascular Smooth Muscle.- 45. Cellular and Subcellular Approaches to the Mechanism of Action of Calcium Antagonists.- 46. Calcium Antagonist Effects on Vascular Muscle Membrane Potentials and Intracellular Ca2+.- 47. Suppression of Experimental Coronary Spasms by Major Calcium Antagonists.- 48. CGP 28392, a Dihydropyridine Ca2+ Entry Stimulator.- XI. Calcium Entry Blockers and Disease.- 49. Role of Ca2+ in and Effect of Ca2+ Entry Blockers on Excitation-Contraction and Excitation-Secretion Coupling.- 50. Calcium Antagonists in the Treatment of Arrhythmias.- 51. Calcium Entry Blockers in Coronary Artery Disease.- 52. The Use of Calcium Entry Blockers in Congestive Heart Failure.- C. Nutritional and Pathophysiologic Aspects of Calcium Action.- XII. Vitamin D and Other Calcemic Agents.- 53. The Vitamin D-Calcium Axis1983.- 54. Vitamin D and the Intestinal Membrane Calcium-Binding Protein.- 55. Calcium-Binding Protein in the Central Nervous System and Other Tissues.- 56. The Vitamin K-Dependent Bone Protein and the Action of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Bone.- 57. Prostaglandins as Mediators of Bone Cell Metabolism.- 58. Interactions of Calcemic Hormones and Divalent Cation Ionophores on Fetal Rat Bone in Vitro.- XIII. Alterations in Calcium Metabolism and Homeostasis.- 59. Altered Cell Calcium Metabolism and Human Diseases.- 60. Dietary Calcium in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Human and Experimental Hypertension.- 61. Calcium Intake and Bone Loss in Population Context.- 62. Similarities and Differences in the Response of Animals and Man to Factors Affecting Calcium Needs.- 63. Factors Influencing Calcium Balance in Man.- 64. Role of Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D in Alveolar Bone Health: Literature Review Update.- XIV. Normal Biological Calcification.- 65. Normal Biological Mineralization: Role of Cells, Membranes, Matrix Vesicles, and Phosphatase.- 66. The Role of Collagen and Phosphoproteins in the Calcification of Bone and Other Collagenous Tissues.- 67. Biological Processes Involved in Endochondral Ossification.- 68. Role of Lipids in Mineralization: An Experimental Model for Membrane Transport of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate.- XV. Pathological Calcification.- 69. Factors Contributing to Intracavitary Calcification.- 70. Mineral, Lipids, and Proteins Associated with Soft Tissue Deposits.- 71. Polymer Properties Associated with Calcification of Cardiovascular Devices.- 72. Calcification of Cardiac Valve Bioprostheses: Host and Implant Factors.- 73. Pathogenesis of Valve Calcification: Comparison of Three Tissue Valves.- 74. Noninvasive Imaging of Dystrophic Calcification.- 75. Prevention of Arterial Calcium Deposition with Diphosphonates and Calcium Entry Blockers.- XVI. Crystal Deposition.- 76. Arthritis and Calcium-Containing Crystals: An Overview.- 77. Nucleoside Triphosphate (NTP) Pyrophosphohydrolase in Chondrocalcinotic and Osteoarthritic Cartilages.- 78. Nucleation and Growth of CPPD Crystals and Related Species in Vitro.- 79. Biological Effects of Calcium-Containing Crystals on Synoviocytes.- 80. Rotator Cuff Tendinopathies with Calcifications.