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Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities

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Although, as W.D. Billings notes in his chapter in this book. the development of physiological ecology can be traced back to the v... Weiterlesen
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Although, as W.D. Billings notes in his chapter in this book. the development of physiological ecology can be traced back to the very beginnings of the study of ecology it is clear that the modern development of this field in North America is due in the large part to the efforts of Billings alone. The foundation that Billings laid in the late 1950s came from his own studies on deserts and subsequently arctic and alpine plants, and also from his enormous success in instilling enthusiasm for the field in the numerous students attracted to the plant ecology program at Duke University. Billings' own studies provided the model for subsequent work in this field. Physiological techniques. normally confined to the laboratory. were brought into the field to examine processes under natural environmental conditions. These field studies were accompanied by experiments under controlled conditions where the relative impact of various factors could be assessed and further where genetic as opposed to environmental influences could be separated. This blending of field and laboratory approaches promoted the design of experiments which were of direct relevance to understanding the distribution and abundance of plants in nature. Physiological mechanisms were studied and assessed in the context of the functioning of plants under natural conditions rather than as an end in itself.


1 The historical development of physiological plant ecology.- 1.1 The beginnings.- 1.2 The 19th century.- 1.3 The spread of physiological ecology to North America.- 1.4 The middle decades.- 1.5 The post-war revival of physiological ecology.- 1.6 Some thoughts about the future of physiological ecology.- References.- 2 Arctic.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Environment.- 2.3 Vegetation and growth forms.- 2.4 Phenology and growth.- 2.5 Photosynthesis and respiration.- 2.6 Water relations.- 2.7 Mobile carbon pools.- 2.8 Nutrient absorption, storage, and loss.- 2.9 Allocation.- 2.10 Reproduction.- 2.11 Summary.- References.- 3 Alpine.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Environment.- 3.3 Floristics.- 3.4 Plant communities and environmental gradients.- 3.5 Seed germination and seedling establishment.- 3.6 Growth forms and plant growth.- 3.7 Plant phenology and growth.- 3.8 Physiological responses.- 3.9 Timberline.- 3.10 The role of snow.- 3.11 Summary.- References.- 4 Taiga.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Vegetation zones of the taiga.- 4.3 Environment.- 4.4 Growth forms and phenology.- 4.5 Controls on carbon balance.- 4.6 Temperature response.- 4.7 Light response.- 4.8 Water stress.- 4.9 Nutrient relations.- 4.10 Production.- 4.11 Causes of timberline.- 4.12 Fire ecology.- 4.13 Establishment and reproduction.- 4.14 Succession.- 4.15 Summary and research needs.- References.- 5 Western montane forests.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Environment.- 5.3 Ecophysiology.- 5.4 Summary and perspectives.- References.- 6 Coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Community structure.- 6.3 Physiological characteristics and responses.- 6.4 Tree structure.- 6.5 Conclusion.- References.- 7 Annuals and perennials of warm deserts.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The physical environment.- 7.3 Phenology and life cycle adaptations.- 7.4 Leaf and canopy adaptations.- 7.5 Photosynthetic and water relations adaptations.- 7.6 Summary.- References.- 8 Desert succulents.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Water relations.- 8.3 CO2 uptake and acidity changes.- 8.4 Thermal relations.- 8.5 Conclusions.- References.- 9 Cold desert.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Photosynthesis in the cold desert environment.- 9.3 The moisture constraint.- 9.4 The salinity constraint.- 9.5 Carbon balance of cold desert shrubs.- 9.6 Nitrogen.- 9.7 Summary: stress in the cold desert.- References.- 10 Chaparral.- 10.1 Extent and general character.- 10.2 Early ecological studies.- 10.3 Environmental rhythms.- 10.4 Growth forms and vegetation rhythms.- 10.5 Water balance.- 10.6 Carbon balance.- 10.7 Nutrient balance.- 10.8 Fire ecology.- 10.9 Summary.- References.- 11 Grasslands.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Plant response to environmental conditions.- 11.3 Summary.- References.- 12 Deciduous forest.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Geography and vegetation.- 12.3 Forest structure.- 12.4 Plant response to seasonal environments.- 12.5 Other periodic stresses.- 12.6 Summary.- References.- 13 Tropical and subtropical forests.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Distribution of tropical and subtropical forests.- 13.3 Physiological ecology of tropical and subtropical forest species.- 13.4 Physiological ecology of Hawaiian forest species.- 13.5 Summary.- References.- 14 Marine beach and dune plant communities.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Light and temperature.- 14.3 Water relations.- 14.4 Salt spray.- 14.5 Soil salinity.- 14.6 Soil nutrients.- 14.7 Sand movement.- 14.8 Deductions from floristic analyses.- 14.9 Summary.- References.- 15 Coastal marshes.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Environmental stress.- 15.3 Plant responses and adaptations.- 15.4 Ecosystem properties affected by plant ecophysiology.- 15.5 Management implications.- 15.6 Conclusions and future research needs.- References.


Titel: Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities
EAN: 9789401086417
ISBN: 978-94-010-8641-7
Format: Kartonierter Einband
Herausgeber: Springer
Genre: Biologie
Gewicht: g
Größe: H280mm x B280mm x T216mm
Jahr: 1900
Auflage: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1985