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ica, I considered myself an old hand: when I started to study the environment of the North Bohemian region in 1963, the ecosystemi... Weiterlesen
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ica, I considered myself an old hand: when I started to study the environment of the North Bohemian region in 1963, the ecosystemic changes and health effects result ing from extremely high concentrations and deposition of sulfurous and nitrogenous air pollutants and particulate matter could not be ignored. When I returned to the area in 1966 to work there for nearly three years as a consultant in energy and environmental affairs, I came to realize the difficulties of efficiently controlling the problem. Hiking on the crest of the Ore Mountains overlooking the valley, I saw much destruction and degradation of coniferous plantings-but I was also repeatedly surprised by the contrast of the withering tops and stunted dried-out growth of spruces and firs with the magnificent beech trees and the healthy understory of shrubs and wild flowers. I recall this impressive lesson of ecosystemic vulnerability and resistance every time I read sweeping generalizations about the environmental effects of acid deposition. At the same time, in the second half of the 1960s, I was introduced by a friend, an engineer working in analytical chemistry and biochemistry, to some of the mysteries of enzymes; this led me to nitrogenase, one of the most incredible sub stances on this planet, and to an interest in various aspects of the nitrogen cycle, which was further strengthened by my later work on the energy cost of crop production, involving inevitable comparisons between natural nitrogen fixation and Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis.


1: Energy and the Environment.- 1.1. Fossil-Fueled Civilization.- 1.2. Ranking the Cycles.- 2: Carbon.- 2.1. Carbon and Biota.- 2.1.1. Primary Productivity.- 2.1.2. Global Storages and Fluxes.- Ecosystem Areas and Changes.- Productivity and Storage Estimates.- Biomass Combustion.- 2.2. Fossil Fuel Combustion.- 2.2.1. Energy Consumption.- Fuel Statistics.- Coals.- Hydrocarbons.- 2.2.2. CO2 Generation.- 2.3. Atmospheric CO2.- 2.3.1. Biospheric Carbon Links.- 2.3.2. Measurements and Concentrations.- Monitoring CO2 Levels.- Global CO2 Trends.- Past and Future Concentrations.- 2.4. Concerns and Uncertainties.- 2.4.1. Warmer Planet?.- Models and Predictions.- Possible Effects: Land.- Possible Effects: Ocean.- 2.4.2. Major Uncertainties.- Atmospheric Response.- Climatic Variations.- Effects on Plants.- 2.5. Controlling CO2.- 3: Nitrogen.- 3.1. Complexities of the Nitrogen Cycle.- 3.1.1. Major Reservoirs.- Rocks and Waters.- Nitrogen in the Atmosphere.- Soils and Biota.- 3.1.2. Natural and Anthropogenic Fluxes.- Nitrogen in Soils.- Summarizing the Transfers.- 3.2. Fertilization.- 3.2.1. Nitrogen Fixation by Living Organisms.- Nitrogen-Fixing Systems.- Rhizobium Nitrogen Fixation.- Legumes.- Limitations and Potentials.- 3.2.2. Organic Fertilizers.- Crop Residues.- Animal Wastes.- Human Wastes and Other Organics.- 3.2.3. Synthetic Fertilizers.- Nitrogenous Fertilizers: Emergence and Diffusion.- Major Fertilizer Compounds.- Energy Analysis.- Financial Costs.- Long-Term Options.- 3.2.4. Crop Response.- Nitrogen Requirements of Crops.- Response to Fertilization.- 3.3. Nitrogen from Combustion.- 3.3.1. Sources.- Stationary Fossil Fuel Combustion.- Mobile Sources.- Other NO x Sources.- 3.3.2. Emissions, Concentrations, Reactions.- Emissions and Concentrations.- Reactions and Removals.- 3.4. Anthropogenic Nitrogen in the Environment.- 3.4.1. Nitrogen Losses in Agroecosystems.- Volatilization.- Denitrification.- Nitrous Oxide and Stratospheric Ozone.- Leaching and Erosion.- Nitrogen in Waters.- 3.4.2. Mass Balances in Agroecosystems.- Nitrogen Budgets.- Nitrogen in United States Agroecosystem.- Tropical Experience.- 3.4.3. Nitrogenous Compounds and Human Health.- Nitrogen Oxides.- Nitrates.- Nitrites and Nitrosamines.- 3.5. Controls and Management Choices.- 3.5.1. Controlling Nitrogen Oxides.- Controls of Mobile Sources.- Controlling Stationary Combustion.- 3.5.2. Efficient Fertilizing.- Minimizing the Losses.- Inhibiting Nitrification.- 4: Sulfur.- 4.1. The Sulfur Cycle.- 4.1.1. Major Reservoirs.- Lithosphere.- Hydrosphere.- Evaporation and Weathering.- 4.1.2. Atmospheric Fluxes.- Volcanic Emissions and Sea Spray.- Biogenic Emissions from the Ocean.- Biogenic Emissions from the Continents.- 4.1.3. Anthropogenic Emissions.- Coal Combustion.- Hydrocarbon Processing and Combustion.- Nonferrous Metallurgy.- Minor Contributions.- 4.1.4. Uncertainties and Balances.- Major Uncertainties.- Balancing the Cycle.- Comparing the Sources.- 4.2. Sulfur in the Atmosphere.- 4.2.1. Sulfur Dioxide.- Physical and Chemical Properties.- Measurements and Concentrations.- Reactions and Removals.- 4.2.2. Sulfur Aerosols.- Kinds and Properties.- Concentrations and Removals.- Sulfates and SO2.- 4.2.3. Residence Times and Transport.- Residence Times.- Long-Range Transport.- 4.3. Acid Deposition.- 4.3.1. Precipitation and Acidity.- Acid Rain.- Measurement Problems.- Baseline Acidity.- Acid-Base Considerations.- Anthropogenic Contributions.- 4.3.2. Wet and Dry Sulfur Deposition.- 4.4. Effects.- 4.4.1. Atmospheric Effects.- 4.4.2. Weathering and Corrosion.- 4.4.3. Acid Deposition and Ecosystems.- Acidification of Waters.- Acidification of Soils.- Effects on Crops.- Effects on Forests.- Ecosystemic Degradation.- 4.4.4. Sulfur Compounds and Human Health.- 4.5. Management Options.- 4.5.1. Underlying Uncertainties.- 4.5.2. Emission Controls.- 4.5.3. Clean Combustion.- Coal Cleaning.- Fluidized Bed Combustion.- 4.5.4. Flue Gas Desulfurization.- Basic Techniques and Problems.- Costs and Innovations.- 4.5.5. Liming.- 5: Lessons, Outlooks, Consequences.- 5.1. Climatic Change and the Biosphere.- 5.2. Nitrogen's Essentiality and Losses.- 5.3. Causes and Costs of Acidification.- 5.4. The Choices.- Postscript.- References.


Titel: Carbon-Nitrogen-Sulfur
Untertitel: Human Interference in Grand Biospheric Cycles
EAN: 9781468488418
ISBN: 1468488414
Format: Kartonierter Einband
Anzahl Seiten: 480
Gewicht: 687g
Größe: H229mm x B152mm x T25mm
Jahr: 2012
Auflage: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1985



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