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Alternative Investments

  • Fester Einband
  • 1104 Seiten
In-depth Level II exam preparation direct from the CAIA Association CAIA Level II is the official study guide for the Chartered Al... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Zusammenfassung
In-depth Level II exam preparation direct from the CAIA Association CAIA Level II is the official study guide for the Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst professional examination, and an authoritative guide to working in the alternative investment sphere.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxi About the Authors xxiii PART 1 Asset Allocation and Institutional Investors CHAPTER 1 Asset Allocation Processes and the Mean-Variance Model 3 1.1 Importance of Asset Allocation 3 1.2 The Five Steps of the Asset Allocation Process 6 1.3 Asset Owners 7 1.4 Objectives and Constraints 9 1.5 Investment Policy Objectives 9 1.6 Investment Policy Constraints 17 1.7 Preparing an Investment Policy Statement 18 1.8 Implementation 22 1.9 Conclusion 33 Notes 34 References 34 CHAPTER 2 Tactical Asset Allocation, Mean-Variance Extensions, Risk Budgeting, Risk Parity, and Factor Investing 35 2.1 Tactical Asset Allocation 35 2.2 Extensions to the Mean-Variance Approach 45 2.3 Risk Budgeting 50 2.4 Risk Parity 55 2.5 Factor Investing 62 2.6 Conclusion 68 Notes 69 References 69 CHAPTER 3 The Endowment Model 71 3.1 Defining Endowments and Foundations 71 3.2 Intergenerational Equity, Inflation, and Spending Challenges 74 3.3 The Endowment Model 76 3.4 Why Might Large Endowments Outperform? 78 3.5 Risks of the Endowment Model 84 3.6 Conclusion 96 Note 96 References 96 CHAPTER 4 Pension Fund Portfolio Management 99 4.1 Development,Motivations, and Types of Pension Plans 99 4.2 Risk Tolerance and Asset Allocation 101 4.3 Defined Benefit Plans 105 4.4 Governmental Social Security Plans 113 4.5 Contrasting Defined Benefit and Contribution Plans 114 4.6 Annuities for Retirement Income 117 4.7 Conclusion 122 Notes 122 References 122 CHAPTER 5 Sovereign Wealth Funds 125 5.1 Sources of Sovereign Wealth 125 5.2 Four Types of Sovereign Wealth Funds 128 5.3 Establishment and Management of Sovereign Wealth Funds 131 5.4 Emergence of Sovereign Wealth Funds 134 5.5 Governance and Political Risks of SWFs 136 5.6 Analysis of Three Sovereign Wealth Funds 138 5.7 Conclusion 141 Notes 142 References 142 CHAPTER 6 The Family Office Model 145 6.1 Identifying Family Offices 145 6.2 Goals, Benefits, and Business Models of Family Offices 145 6.3 Family Office Goals by Generations 150 6.4 Macroeconomic Exposures of Family Offices 155 6.5 Income Taxes of Family Offices 157 6.6 Lifestyle Assets of Family Offices 160 6.7 Family Office Governance 164 6.8 Charity, Philanthropy, and Impact Investing 167 6.9 Ten Competitive Advantages of Family Offices 170 6.10 Conclusion 172 Notes 172 References 173 PART 2 Private Equity CHAPTER 7 Private Equity Market Structure 177 7.1 Main Strategies of Private Equity Investment 177 7.2 Main Differences between Venture Capital and Buyout 178 7.3 PE Funds as Intermediaries 181 7.4 PE Funds of Funds as Intermediaries 184 7.5 The Relationship Life Cycle between LPs and GPs 187 7.6 Limited Partnership Key Features 190 7.7 Co-Investments 198 7.8 Conclusion 202 Notes 202 References 203 CHAPTER 8 Private Equity Benchmarking 205 8.1 The Valuation of PE Assets 206 8.2 Measuring Performance of PE Funds 206 8.3 Benchmark Types 212 8.4 Asset-Based Benchmarks 213 8.5 Peer Groups 215 8.6 What Is an Appropriate Benchmark? 218 8.7 Example for Benchmarking PE Funds 220 8.8 Portfolio of PE Funds 226 8.9 Conclusion 231 Notes 232 References 232 CHAPTER 9 Fund Manager Selection and Monitoring 235 9.1 Performance Persistence 235 9.2 Manager Selection and Deal Sourcing 241 9.3 Decision-Making and Commitment 244 9.4 Principles of Fund Monitoring 245 9.5 Monitoring Objectives 246 9.6 Information Gathering and Monitoring 248 9.7 Actions Resulting from Monitoring 251 9.8 The Secondary Market 253 9.9 Conclusion 259 Notes 260 References 262 CHAPTER 10 Private Equity Operational Due Diligence 265 10.1 The Sc...

Autorentext

The CAIA Association (Amherst, MA) is an independent, not-for-profit global organization committed to education and professionalism in the field of alternative investments, established in 2002 by industry leaders under the guidance of the Alternative Investment Management Association (AIMA) and the Center for International Securities and Derivatives Markets (CISDM) with the belief that a strong foundation of knowledge is essential for all professionals. The CAIA Association offers two exams (Level I and Level II).



Klappentext

In-depth Level II exam preparation direct from the CAIA Association CAIA Level II is the official study guide for the Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst professional examination, and an authoritative guide to working in the alternative investment sphere. Written by the makers of the exam, this book provides in-depth guidance through the entire exam agenda; the Level II strategies are the same as Level I, but this time you'll review them through the lens of risk management and portfolio optimisation. Topics include asset allocation and portfolio oversight, style analysis, risk management, alternative asset securitisation, secondary market creation, performance and style attribution and indexing and benchmarking, with clear organisation and a logical progression that allows you to customise your preparation focus. This new third edition has been updated to align with the latest exam, and to reflect the current practices in the field. The CAIA designation was developed to provide a standardized knowledge base in the midst of explosive capital inflow into alternative investments. This book provides a single-source repository of that essential information, tailored to those preparing for the Level II exam. * Measure, monitor and manage funds from a risk management perspective * Delve into advanced portfolio structures and optimisation strategies * Master the nuances of private equity, real assets, commodities and hedge funds * Gain expert insight into preparing thoroughly for the CAIA Level II exam The CAIA Charter programme is rigorous and comprehensive, and the designation is globally recognised as the highest standard in alternative investment education. Candidates seeking thorough preparation and detailed explanations of all aspects of alternative investment need look no further than CAIA Level II.



Inhalt

Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxi About the Authors xxiii PART 1 Asset Allocation and Institutional Investors CHAPTER 1 Asset Allocation Processes and the Mean-Variance Model 3 1.1 Importance of Asset Allocation 3 1.2 The Five Steps of the Asset Allocation Process 6 1.3 Asset Owners 7 1.4 Objectives and Constraints 9 1.5 Investment Policy Objectives 9 1.6 Investment Policy Constraints 17 1.7 Preparing an Investment Policy Statement 18 1.8 Implementation 22 1.9 Conclusion 33 Notes 34 References 34 CHAPTER 2 Tactical Asset Allocation, Mean-Variance Extensions, Risk Budgeting, Risk Parity, and Factor Investing 35 2.1 Tactical Asset Allocation 35 2.2 Extensions to the Mean-Variance Approach 45 2.3 Risk Budgeting 50 2.4 Risk Parity 55 2.5 Factor Investing 62 2.6 Conclusion 68 Notes 69 References 69 CHAPTER 3 The Endowment Model 71 3.1 Defining Endowments and Foundations 71 3.2 Intergenerational Equity, Inflation, and Spending Challenges 74 3.3 The Endowment Model 76 3.4 Why Might Large Endowments Outperform? 78 3.5 Risks of the Endowment Model 84 3.6 Conclusion 96 Note 96 References 96 CHAPTER 4 Pension Fund Portfolio Management 99 4.1 Development,Motivations, and Types of Pension Plans 99 4.2 Risk Tolerance and Asset Allocation 101 4.3 Defined Benefit Plans 105 4.4 Governmental Social Security Plans 113 4.5 Contrasting Defined Benefit and Contribution Plans 114 4.6 Annuities for Retirement Income 117 4.7 Conclusion 122 Notes 122 References 122 CHAPTER 5 Sovereign Wealth Funds 125 5.1 Sources of Sovereign Wealth 125 5.2 Four Types of Sovereign Wealth Funds 128 5.3 Establishment and Management of Sovereign Wealth Funds 131 5.4 Emergence of Sovereign Wealth Funds 134 5.5 Governance and Political Risks of SWFs 136 5.6 Analysis of Three Sovereign Wealth Funds 138 5.7 Conclusion 141 Notes 142 References 142 CHAPTER 6 The Family Office Model 145 6.1 Identifying Family Offices 145 6.2 Goals, Benefits, and Business Models of Family Offices 145 6.3 Family Office Goals by Generations 150 6.4 Macroeconomic Exposures of Family Offices 155 6.5 Income Taxes of Family Offices 157 6.6 Lifestyle Assets of Family Offices 160 6.7 Family Office Governance 164 6.8 Charity, Philanthropy, and Impact Investing 167 6.9 Ten Competitive Advantages of Family Offices 170 6.10 Conclusion 172 Notes 172 References 173 PART 2 Private Equity CHAPTER 7 Private Equity Market Structure 177 7.1 Main Strategies of Private Equity Investment 177 7.2 Main Differences between Venture Capital and Buyout 178 7.3 PE Funds as Intermediaries 181 7.4 PE Funds of Funds as Intermediaries 184 7.5 The Relationship Life Cycle between LPs and GPs 187 7.6 Limited Partnership Key Features 190 7.7 Co-Investments 198 7.8 Conclusion 202 Notes 202 References 203 CHAPTER 8 Private Equity Benchmarking 205 8.1 The Valuation of PE Assets 206 8.2 Measuring Performance of PE Funds 206 8.3 Benchmark Types 212 8.4 Asset-Based Benchmarks 213 8.5 Peer Groups 215 8.6 What Is an Appropriate Benchmark? 218 8.7 Example for Benchmarking PE Funds 220 8.8 Portfolio of PE Funds 226 8.9 Conclusion 231 Notes 232 References 232 CHAPTER 9 Fund Manager Selection and Monitoring 235 9.1 Performance Persistence 235 9.2 Manager Selection and Deal Sourcing 241 9.3 Decision-Making and Commitment 244 9.4 Principles of Fund Monitoring 245 9.5 Monitoring Objectives 246 9.6 Information Gathering and Monitoring 248 9.7 Actions Resulting from Monitoring 251 9.8 The Secondary Market 253 9.9 Conclusion 259 Notes 260 References 262 CHAPTER 10 Private Equity Operational Due Diligence 265 10.1 The Scope and Importance of Operational Due Diligence 265 10.2 Eight Core Elements of the Operational Due Diligence Process 268 10.3 Private Equity Operational Due Diligence Document Collection Process 269 10.4 Analyzing Private Equity Legal Documentation during Operational Due Diligence 272 10.5 Operational Due Diligence beyond Legal Document Analysis 278 10.6 On-Site Manager Visits 282 10.7 Evaluating Meta Risk 284 10.8 Fund Service Provider Review and Confirmation 285 10.9 Ongoing Private Equity Monitoring Considerations 286 10.10 Conclusion 287 Notes 288 References and Further Readings 288 CHAPTER 11 Private Equity Investment Process and Portfolio Management 289 11.1 Investment Process 290 11.2 Private Equity Portfolio: Design 293 11.3 Private Equity Portfolio: Construction 297 11.4 Risk-Return Management 300 11.5 Conclusion 306 Notes 307 References 308 CHAPTER 12 Measuring Private Equity Risk 309 12.1 Four Significant Risks of Private Equity 309 12.2 Modeling Private Equity 311 12.3 What Is the Value of a Private Equity Asset? 313 12.4 Applying the VaR Concept to Private Equity 315 12.5 Calculating VaR Based on Cash Flow at Risk 315 12.6 Conclusion 320 Notes 321 References 321 CHAPTER 13 The Management of Liquidity 323 13.1 Identifying Illiquidity and Managing Cash Flows 323 13.2 Private Equity Cash Flow Schedules 327 13.3 Five Sources of Liquidity 328 13.4 Investment Strategies for Undrawn Capital 330 13.5 Modeling Cash Flow Projections 330 13.6 Three Approaches to Forming Model Projections 331 13.7 Overcommitment 337 13.8 Conclusion 339 Notes 340 References 340 PART 3 Real Assets CHAPTER 14 Real Estate as an Investment 343 14.1 Attributes of Real Estate 343 14.2 Asset Allocation 345 14.3 Categories of Real Estate 347 14.4 Return Drivers of Real Estate 352 14.5 The Four-Quadrant Model 354 14.6 Conclusion 358 Note 358 References 358 CHAPTER 15 Real Estate Indices and Unsmoothing Techniques 361 15.1 Smoothed Pricing 362 15.2 Models of Price and Return Smoothing 365 15.3 Unsmoothing a Price or Return Series 368 15.4 An Illustration of Unsmoothing 372 15.5 Noisy Pricing 378 15.6 Appraisal-Based Real Estate Indexes 379 15.7 Transaction-Based Indices (Repeat-Sales and Hedonic) 384 15.8 Description of Major Real Estate Indices 390 15.9 Real Estate Indices Performance 393 15.10 Conclusion 398 Notes 398 References 399 CHAPTER 16 Investment Styles, Portfolio Allocation, and Real Estate Derivatives 401 16.1 Defining the Three NCREIF Real Estate Styles 402 16.2 Differentiating Styles with Eight Attributes 404 16.3 Three Purposes of Real Estate Style Analysis 404 16.4 Real Estate Style Boxes 407 16.5 Cap Rates and Expected Returns 408 16.6 Developing Risk and Return Expectations with Styles 409 16.7 Characteristics of Real Estate Derivatives 415 16.8 Types of Real Estate Derivatives and Indices 417 16.9 Conclusion 421 References 421 CHAPTER 17 Listed versus Unlisted Real Estate Investments 423 17.1 Unlisted Real Estate Funds 423 17.2 Listed Real Estate Funds 427 17.3 Market-Based versus Appraisal-Based Returns 435 17.4 Arbitrage, Liquidity, and Segmentation 439 17.5 Conclusion 448 Note 449 References 449 CHAPTER 18 International Real Estate Investments 451 18.1 Overview of International Real Estate Investing 451 18.2 Opportunities in International Real Estate Investing 453 18.3 Challenges to International Real Estate Investing 462 18.4 Establishing a Global Real Estate Equity Investment Program 470 18.5 Conclusion 476 Note 476 References 477 CHAPTER 19 Infrastructure as an Investment 479 19.1 Infrastructure Assets 479 19.2 Stage, Location, and Sector of Infrastructure 483 19.3 Twelve Attributes of Infrastructure as Defensive Investments 486 19.4 Accessing Infrastructure Investment Opportunities 489 19.5 Classifying Infrastructure Fund Strategies 493 19.6 Comparison of Infrastructure with Other Assets 496 19.7 Public-Private Partnerships 497 19.8 Infrastructure Regulation and Public Policy 499 19.9 Infrastructure Historical Performance 499 19.10 Conclusion 501 References 502 CHAPTER 20 Farmland and Timber Investments 503 20.1 Motivations for and Characteristics of Farmland Investment 503 20.2 Global Demand for Agricultural Products 505 20.3 Accessing Agricultural Returns 508 20.4 Understanding the Returns to Farmland 514 20.5 Investing in Agricultural Infrastructure 520 20.6 Global Investing in Timberland 522 20.7 Farmland and Timber Investments Compared to Other Real Assets 525 20.8 Key Points 528 20.9 Conclusion 529 Notes 529 References 529 CHAPTER 21 Investing in Intellectual Property 533 21.1 Characteristics of Intellectual Property 533 21.2 Film Production and Distribution 534 21.3 Visual Works of Art 541 21.4 R&D and Patents 546 21.5 Intellectual Property and Six Characteristics of Real Assets 552 21.6 Conclusion 553 Notes 553 References 555 PART 4 Commodities CHAPTER 22 Key Concepts in Commodity Markets 561 22.1 Economics of Commodity Spot Markets 561 22.2 Commodity Trading Firms, Risks, and Speculation 565 22.3 Economics of Commodity Futures Markets 570 22.4 Theories of Commodity Forward Curves 575 22.5 Decomposition of Returns to Futures-Based Commodity Investment 581 22.6 Commodities as an Inflation Hedge 582 22.7 Commodities and Exchange Rates 584 22.8 Rebalancing and Historical Performance of Commodity Futures 586 22.9 Conclusion 590 Notes 590 References 591 CHAPTER 23 Allocation to Commodities 593 23.1 Five Beneficial Characteristics of Allocations to Commodity Futures 593 23.2 Commodity Investment Strategies 602 23.3 Directional Strategies 602 23.4 Relative Value Strategies 605 23.5 Commodity Futures and Options Spreads 605 23.6 Capital Structure and Commodity-Based Corporations 612 23.7 Conclusion 614 Notes 615 References 615 CHAPTER 24 Accessing Commodity Investment Products 619 24.1 Direct Physical Ownership of Commodities 619 24.2 Indirect Ownership of Commodities 620 24.3 Leveraged and Option-Based Structures 628 24.4 Commodity Index Basics 631 24.5 Eight Sources of Commodity Index Returns 631 24.6 Issues in Commodity Index Design 634 24.7 Performance Enhancements of New Commodity Indices 637 24.8 Commodity Index Return Calculation 639 24.9 Conclusion 644 Notes 644 References 645 PART 5 Hedge Funds and Managed Futures CHAPTER 25 Managed Futures 649 25.1 The Structure of the Managed Futures Industry 649 25.2 Four Core Dimensions of Managed Futures Investment Strategies 651 25.3 Foundations of Managed Futures 658 25.4 Benefits of CTAs 666 25.5 Systematic Futures Portfolio Construction 671 25.6 Conclusion 675 References 676 CHAPTER 26 Investing in CTAs 677 26.1 Historical Performance of CTAs 677 26.2 Diversification Benefits of CTAs 685 26.3 CTA Risk Measurement and Risk Management 688 26.4 Three Approaches to the Benchmarking of CTAs 700 26.5 Managed Accounts and Platforms 703 26.6 Conclusion 707 Notes 709 References 709 CHAPTER 27 Relative Value Strategies 711 27.1 Limits to Arbitrage of Relative Valuation 711 27.2 Convertible Arbitrage: An Overview 717 27.3 Pairs Trading and Market Neutrality 733 27.4 Conclusion 741 Notes 743 References 743 CHAPTER 28 Hedge Funds: Directional Strategies 745 28.1 Financial Economics of Directional Strategies 745 28.2 Equity Long/Short 751 28.3 Global Macro 769 28.4 Historical Performance of Directional Strategies 785 28.5 Conclusion 786 Notes 786 References 786 CHAPTER 29 Hedge Funds: Credit Strategies 789 29.1 The Economics of Credit Risk 789 29.2 Overview of Credit Risk Modeling 792 29.3 The Merton Model 793 29.4 Other Structural Models--KMV 798 29.5 Reduced-Form Models 801 29.6 Pros and Cons of Structural and Reduced-Form Models 805 29.7 Empirical Credit Models 805 29.8 Distressed Debt Investment Strategy 808 29.9 Bankruptcy Laws across the Globe 815 29.10 Implementation of Distressed Debt Strategies 819 29.11 Valuation Risks in Distressed Debt Investing 822 29.12 Asset-Based Lending 824 29.13 Conclusion 830 Notes 830 References 830 CHAPTER 30 Volatility, Correlation, and Dispersion Products and Strategies 833 30.1 Volatility, Risk Factors, and Risk Premiums 833 30.2 Using Options to Manage Portfolio Volatility Exposure and Risk Premiums 835 30.3 Modeling Volatility Processes 845 30.4 Volatility Products 848 30.5 Option-Based Volatility Strategies 855 30.6 Volatility Hedge Funds and Their Strategies 859 30.7 Conclusion 865 Notes 865 References 866 CHAPTER 31 Hedge Fund Replication 867 31.1 An Overview of Replication Products 867 31.2 Potential Benefits of Replication Products 868 31.3 The Case for Hedge Fund Replication 869 31.4 Unique Benefits of Replication Products 873 31.5 Factor-Based Approach to Replication 877 31.6 Payoff-Distribution Approach 882 31.7 Algorithmic (Bottom-Up) Approach 885 31.8 Alternative Mutual Funds 890 31.9 Exchange-Traded Funds 893 31.10 Conclusion 894 Notes 895 References 895 CHAPTER 32 Funds of Hedge Funds and Multistrategy Funds 897 32.1 Approaches to Accessing Hedge Funds 897 32.2 Characteristics of Funds of Hedge Funds 901 32.3 Funds of Funds Performance 905 32.4 Fund of Hedge Funds Portfolio Construction 907 32.5 Manager Selection 913 32.6 Benefits Offered by Funds of Hedge Funds 914 32.7 Disadvantages of Funds of Hedge Funds 916 32.8 Funds of Hedge Funds versus Multistrategy Funds 917 32.9 How Funds of Hedge Funds Add Value 919 32.10 Hedge Funds Indices 925 32.11 Conclusion 929 References 930 CHAPTER 33 Hedge Fund Operational Due Diligence 933 33.1 Distinguishing Hedge Fund and Private Equity Operational Due Diligence 933 33.2 Four Operational Steps in Analyzing Hedge Fund Operational Trading Procedures 934 33.3 Analyzing Hedge Fund Cash Management and Movement 936 33.4 Analyzing Hedge Fund External Parties 938 33.5 Analyzing Hedge Fund Compliance Considerations 942 33.6 Documenting the Operational Due Diligence Process 945 33.7 Operational Decision Making and Allocation Considerations 946 33.8 Investigative Due Diligence 948 33.9 Four Approaches to Resource Allocation for Operational Due Diligence 950 33.10 Hedge Fund Governance 952 33.11 Hedge Fund Insurance 954 33.12 Performing Operational Due Diligence on Funds of Hedge Funds 955 33.13 Conclusion 956 CHAPTER 34 Regulation and Compliance 957 34.1 Three Foundational Principles of Financial Market Regulation 957 34.2 The Regulation of Alternative Investments within the United States 958 34.3 Alternative Investment Regulation in Europe 969 34.4 Hedge Fund Regulation in Asia 979 34.5 Conclusion 983 Notes 983 PART 6 Structured Products CHAPTER 35 Structured Products-I Fixed-Income Derivatives and Asset-Backed Securities 991 35.1 Overview of Term Structure Modeling 991 35.2 Equilibrium Models of the Term Structure 992 35.3 Arbitrage-Free Models of the Term Structure 996 35.4 Interest Rate Derivatives 999 35.5 Asset-Backed Securities 1013 35.6 Auto Loan-Backed Securities 1014 35.7 Credit Card Receivables 1016 35.8 Conclusion 1018 Notes 1018 References 1018 CHAPTER 36 Structured Products II: Insurance-Linked Products and Hybrid Securities 1021 36.1 Insurance-Linked Securities 1021 36.2 Overview of Non-Life ILS: Catastrophe Bonds 1021 36.3 Life ILS: Longevity and Mortality Risk-Related Products 1030 36.4 Hybrid Products: Mezzanine Debt 1037 36.5 Conclusion 1050 Notes 1051 References 1051 Appendix A Alternative Presentations of Mean-Variance Optimization 1053 Index 1055

Produktinformationen

Titel: Alternative Investments
Untertitel: CAIA Level II
Autor:
EAN: 9781119016397
ISBN: 978-1-119-01639-7
Format: Fester Einband
Genre: Wirtschaft
Anzahl Seiten: 1104
Gewicht: g
Größe: H254mm x B254mm x T178mm
Jahr: 2016
Auflage: 3. Aufl.
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