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Rheophytes of the World

  • Kartonierter Einband
  • 440 Seiten
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Already as a teenager I had become acquainted with rheophytes, during swimming exercises between Utrecht and Bunnik in the 'K... Weiterlesen
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Already as a teenager I had become acquainted with rheophytes, during swimming exercises between Utrecht and Bunnik in the 'Kromme Rijn', an ancient, then canalized course of the river Rhine, where a submerged waterplant occurred gregariously in dense stands on the sandy bottom. In the rather swift current of the then very clear water, its long, linear, ribbon shaped blades floated gracefully in serpentine fashion. We never found it in flower. At times the stands became so dense that the 'rugt' (all subaquatic weed growth) was mowed by scythe from shallow-bottom 'punters', in order to remove this obstacle to water traffic. It was never seen in stagnant water of the ditches in the meadows of the valley. After entering the University, with the purpose of devoting my further life to the study of botany, my attention was roused by the research subject of our professor F.A.F.C. Went, who became my tutor and mental father. As far as his free time was available - and that was precious little because he primarily devoted himself to tuition of students and promovendi besides administration of the botany department - he tried to study the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the Podostemaceae, of which tropical cascade plants he had made large collections and observations in Surinam.


1. Introduction.- a. Descent of mountain plants along rivers.- b. Definition of a rheophyte.- c. The rheophytes as a biological group.- d. Parallel development in adaptive features.- e. How to recognize rheophytes? - The sources.- f. Rheophytes in drought areas.- g. Census of rheophytic plants 9 - Swift-running water 10 - Riparian plants 10 - Riparian rheophytes 11 - Rare rheophytes 11 - Facultative rheophytes 11 - Completeness 12.- h. Plan of the work.- Acknowledgements.- 2. The Habitat.- I. The Climate.- II. The Medium.- III. The Substratum.- a. The concept ecological niche in botany.- b. The ecological niches for the rheophytes 22 - Cascades and rapids 22 - Gorges 22 - Stony riverbeds 22 - Boulders 23 - Gravel 25 - Pebbles 26 - Sandbars 26 - Riparian habitat 27 - Sandy submerged river bottoms 28.- 3. Morphology and Ecology.- I. Hydrophytic Rheophytes.- II. Torrenticolous Rheophytes.- a. Podostemaceae.- b. Hydrostachyaceae.- III. Rheophytic Landplants.- a. Mat-rooted rheophytes.- b. Non-mat-rooted rheophytes 31 - Root-system 31 - Habit 32 - Branching 33 - Wood structure of stem and twigs 33 - Indument 34 - Foliage 34 - Leaf-shape 34 - Compound leaves 36 - Leaf-texture 36 - Leaf-margin 36 - Leaf-apex 36 - Leaf-index 36 - Inflorescences 37 - Damage in rheophytes 37 - Vegetative reproduction 39 - Fruit and seed 39 Periodicity of flowering and fruiting 41.- 4. Distribution of Rheophytes.- a. Geographical survey of the literature.- South America.- Extra-tropical South America: Argentina.- Tropical South America: Bolivia 44 - Amazon Basin 44 - Surinam 45 - Venezuelan Guyana 45.- Central America.- Guatemala 46 - Panama Canal Zone 46 - Mexico 46 Cuba 47.- North America.- Kansas 48 - Utah 48 - California 48 - Canada 48.- Africa.- Southern Africa.- Tropical Africa.- Madagascar.- Northern Africa: Morocco 52 - Ethiopia 52 -Somaliland 52 - Egypt 53.- Europe.- Central Europe.- South Europe.- South Asia.- Afghanistan.- Continental Southeast Asia.- Ceylon 54 - India 54 - Burma 56 - Thailand 57 - Indo-China 57.- East Asia.- Hainan 57 - Mainland of China 57 - Taiwan 57 - Japan 57.- Malesia.- Malaya 58 - Sumatra 59 - Java 60 - Lesser Sunda Islands 61 - Borneo 61 - Philippines 63 - Celebes 64 - Moluccas 64 - New Guinea 64 - Louisiades 65.- Australia.- Melanesia.- Solomon Islands 66 - New Caledonia 66.- Polynesia.- Fiji Islands 67 - Hawaiian Islands 67.- b. Latitude and altitude of rheophytes: Latitude 67 - Altitude 68.- c. Rheophytes in seasonal and drought zones: Seasonal climate 69 Drought climate 69.- d. Rheophytes and bedrock.- e. Systematic arrangement of the rheophytes.- Families with a large number of rheophytes.- Genera with a large number of rheophyte species.- f. Geographical arrangement of the rheophytes.- Rheophytes in Malesia.- g. Endemism in rheophytes.- Genera entirely consisting of rheophytes.- Endemic species.- h. Rheophytes in oceanic islands.- i. Largest ranges among the rheophytes.- j. Rheophytes and palaeogeography.- k. Sociology of the rheophytes.- 5. Cultivation of Rheophytes.- Rheophytes as useful plants.- 6. Why are Rheophytes confined to Streambeds?.- 7. The Riddle of the Willow-like Leaf-shape.- Narrow leaves not peculiar to rheophytes.- Relative importance of the willow-like leaf-shape.- Constancy of the leaf-index.- The willow-like leaf function for least resistance.- Experimental measurement of resistance to currents.- Deductions from the measurements in Table 3.- Conclusions from the experiments.- 8. Autonomous Evolution and the Derivation of the Rheophytes.- Scarcity of rheophytes in the plant world.- Parallel development.- Pre-disposed structures for development of rheophytes.- Gradual speciation by raciation.- Population divergence in facultative rheophytes.- Differentiation of rheophytic varieties.- The infra-specific taxa of rheophytes.- Specific segregation.- Infrageneric and generic segregation.- Rheophytes exemplary of parallel evolution.- Adaptation, a selection process of passive pruning in autonomous evolution.- Differences between plant and animal evolution.- Survival level, patio ludens, and neutral characters.- Patio ludens and 'pre-adaptations' in plants.- Early differentiation.- Saltatory evolution in plants.- Gliding evolution in animals.- Co-evolution of plants and animals 126 - Reticulate phylogeny 132 - Concluding remarks 133.- The neutral characters of patio ludens in plants.- Evolution, an erratic array of results from experiments by Nature.- Epilogue.- 9. Bibliography.- 10. Glossary.- 11. Census of the Rheophytes of the World.- Indices and Errata.


Titel: Rheophytes of the World
Untertitel: An Account of the Flood-Resistant Flowering Plants and Ferns and the Theory of Autonomous Evolution
EAN: 9789400985902
ISBN: 9400985908
Format: Kartonierter Einband
Anzahl Seiten: 440
Gewicht: 690g
Größe: H244mm x B156mm x T23mm
Jahr: 2012
Auflage: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981



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