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1235

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Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 42. Chapters: 1235 births, 1235 by country, 1235 deaths, 1235 establishments, 1235 in Europe, 1235 in l... Weiterlesen
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Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 42. Chapters: 1235 births, 1235 by country, 1235 deaths, 1235 establishments, 1235 in Europe, 1235 in law, Conflicts in 1235, Pope Boniface VIII, Andrew II of Hungary, Henry I, Duke of Brabant, Robert Fitzwalter, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Saint Sava, Hugh of Wells, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, Ibn al-Farid, List of state leaders in 1235, Andronikos I of Trebizond, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, Marie of Hohenstaufen, Hugh III of Cyprus, Cadenet, Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria, Rose of Viterbo, Arnaldus de Villa Nova, Ralph de Hengham, Jolenta of Poland, Ralph Sandwich, Siege of Constantinople, Shlomo ben Aderet, Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, Henry of Almain, Plaisance of Antioch, Conrad II of Teck, John II, Count of Soissons, Philip I, Count of Boulogne, Statute of Merton, David Kimhi, Nicholas of Poland, Gerald VI, Count of Armagnac, Qian Xuan, John de Baalun, Walter of Whithorn, Isaac the Blind, Henry Sandford, Vira Narasimha II, Aharon HaLevi, Remigio dei Girolami, Benedetto II Zaccaria, Ralph, Count of Soissons, Henry de Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, Thomas de Camville, Kujo Norizane, Madudan Óg Ó Madadhan, 1235 in poetry, 1235 in Ireland, Abu Abdallah ibn Harzihim, Gerlach III of Isenburg-Covern. Excerpt: Lord Robert Fitzwalter (died 1234 or 1235) was the leader of the baronial opposition against King John of England, one of the twenty-five sureties of the Magna Carta. He was the third Lord Fitzwalter of Dunmow Castle, Essex; and lord of Baynard's Castle, in London, to which was annexed the hereditary office of castellain and chief banneret of the City of London. Part of the official aristocracy created by Henry I and Henry II, he served John in the Norman wars, and was taken prisoner by King Philip II of France, and forced to pay a heavy ransom. Fitzwalter was implicated in the baronial conspiracy of 1212. According to his own statement the king had attempted to seduce his eldest daughter, but Robert's account of his grievances varied from time to time. The truth seems to be that he was irritated by the suspicion with which John regarded the new baronage. Fitzwalter escaped a trial by fleeing to France. He was outlawed, but returned under a special amnesty after John's reconciliation with the pope. Fitzwalter continued, however, to take the lead in the baronial agitation against the king, and upon the outbreak of hostilities in 1215 was elected "marshal of the army of God and Holy Church". It was due to his influence in London that his party obtained the support of the city and used it as their base of operations. The clause of the Magna Carta prohibiting sentences of exile, except as the result of a lawful trial, refers more particularly to his case. He was one of the twenty-five barons appointed to enforce the promises of Magna Carta, and his aggressive attitude was one of the causes which contributed to the recrudescence of civil war later in 1215. His incompetent leadership made it necessary for the rebels to invoke the help of France. He was one of the envoys who invited Louis to England, and was the first of the barons to do homage when the prince entered London. Though slighted by the French as a traitor to his natural lord, he served Louis with fidelity unti

Produktinformationen

Titel: 1235
Untertitel: 1235 births, 1235 by country, 1235 deaths, 1235 establishments, 1235 in Europe, 1235 in law, Conflicts in 1235, Pope Boniface VIII, Andrew II of Hungary, Henry I, Duke of Brabant, Robert Fitzwalter, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Saint Sava
Editor:
EAN: 9781155957692
ISBN: 1155957695
Format: Kartonierter Einband
Anzahl Seiten: 44
Gewicht: 82g
Größe: H246mm x B189mm x T2mm
Jahr: 2011