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11th-century writers

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Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 56. Chapters: Adam of Bremen, Michael Psellos, Marianus Scotus, Shen Kuo, Symeon the New Theologian, Su... Weiterlesen
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Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 56. Chapters: Adam of Bremen, Michael Psellos, Marianus Scotus, Shen Kuo, Symeon the New Theologian, Su Song, Ferdowsi, Nikephoros Ouranos, Baba Taher, Qatran Tabrizi, Al-Ma arri, Asadi Tusi, John Italus, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, Ibn Gharsiya, Nannayya, Al-Bakri, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Andrew of Fleury, Manegold of Lautenbach, Osbern of Canterbury, Ibrahim ibn ar-Raqiq, Durgasimha, John Mauropous, Masud Sa'd Salman, Ekkehard IV, Flann Mainistrech, Simeon Seth, Christopher of Mytilene, Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, Blessed Marianus Scotus, Mu'izzi, Farrukhi Sistani, Ibn Ammar, Máel Muire mac Céilechair, Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami, Thangmar, Sæmundr fróði, Amatus of Montecassino, William of Apulia, Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani, Wenrich of Trier, Kekaumenos, Cellach húa Rúanada, Lantfred, Gilla Pátraic, Mac Beathaidh mac Ainmire, Abu'l Husayn al-Basri, Airbertach mac Cosse, Antonius Melissa, Gilla Cómáin mac Gilla Samthainde, Azraqi, Asjadi, Uthman Mukhtari, Mael Ísu Ua Brolcháin, Godfrey of Cambrai. Excerpt: Shen Kuo or Shen Gua (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shen Kuò; Wade-Giles: Shen K'uo) (1031-1095), style name Cunzhong ( ) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng ( ), was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Excelling in many fields of study and statecraft, he was a mathematician, astronomer, meteorologist, geologist, zoologist, botanist, pharmacologist, agronomist, archaeologist, ethnographer, cartographer, encyclopedist, general, diplomat, hydraulic engineer, inventor, academy chancellor, finance minister, governmental state inspector, poet, and musician. He was the head official for the Bureau of Astronomy in the Song court, as well as an Assistant Minister of Imperial Hospitality. At court his political allegiance was to the Reformist faction known as the New Policies Group, headed by Chancellor Wang Anshi (1021-1086). In his Dream Pool Essays (; Mengxi Bitan) of 1088, Shen was the first to describe the magnetic needle compass, which would be used for navigation (first described in Europe by Alexander Neckam in 1187). Shen discovered the concept of true north in terms of magnetic declination towards the north pole, with experimentation of suspended magnetic needles and "the improved meridian determined by Shen's measurement of the distance between the polestar and true north". This was the decisive step in human history to make compasses more useful for navigation, and may have been a concept unknown in Europe for another four hundred years (evidence of German sundials made circa 1450 show markings similar to Chinese geomancer compasses in regards to declination). Alongside his colleague Wei Pu, Shen planned to map the orbital paths of the Moon and the planets in an intensive five-year project involving daily observations, yet this was thwarted by political opponents at court. To aid his work in astronomy, Shen Kuo made improved designs of the armillary sphere, gnomon, sighting tube, and invented a new type of infl

Produktinformationen

Titel: 11th-century writers
Untertitel: Adam of Bremen, Michael Psellos, Marianus Scotus, Shen Kuo, Symeon the New Theologian, Su Song, Ferdowsi, Nikephoros Ouranos, Baba Taher, Qatran Tabrizi, Al-Ma arri, Asadi Tusi, John Italus, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, Ibn Gharsiya, Nannayya
Editor:
EAN: 9781156087701
ISBN: 978-1-156-08770-1
Format: Kartonierter Einband
Herausgeber: Books LLC, Reference Series
Genre: Geschichte
Anzahl Seiten: 56
Gewicht: 130g
Größe: H246mm x B189mm x T3mm
Jahr: 2011