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Geochronology and Thermochronology

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This book is a welcome introduction and reference for users and innovators in geochronology. It provides modern perspectives on th... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

This book is a welcome introduction and reference for users and innovators in geochronology. It provides modern perspectives on the current state-of-the art in most of the principal areas of geochronology and thermochronology, while recognizing that they are changing at a fast pace. It emphasizes fundamentals and systematics, historical perspective, analytical methods, data interpretation, and some applications chosen from the literature. This book complements existing coverage by expanding on those parts of isotope geochemistry that are concerned with dates and rates and insights into Earth and planetary science that come from temporal perspectives. 

Geochronology and Thermochronology offers chapters covering: Foundations of Radioisotopic Dating; Analytical Methods; Interpretational Approaches: Making Sense of Data; Diffusion and Thermochronologic Interpretations; Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf; Re-Os and Pt-Os; U-Th-Pb Geochronology and Thermochronology; The K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Systems; Radiation-damage Methods of Geo- and Thermochronology; The (U-Th)/He System; Uranium-series Geochronology; Cosmogenic Nuclides; and Extinct Radionuclide Chronology. 

  • Offers a foundation for understanding each of the methods and for illuminating directions that will be important in the near future
  • Presents the fundamentals, perspectives, and opportunities in modern geochronology in a way that inspires further innovation, creative technique development, and applications
  • Provides references to rapidly evolving topics that will enable readers to pursue future developments

Geochronology and Thermochronology is designed for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students with a solid background in mathematics, geochemistry, and geology.



Peter W. Reiners, University of Arizona, USA

Richard W. Carlson, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA

Paul R. Renne, Berkeley Geochronology Center and University of California, USA

Kari M. Cooper, University of California, USA

Darryl E. Granger, Purdue University, USA

Noah M. McLean, University of Kansas, USA

Blair Schoene, Princeton University, USA

Autorentext

Peter W. Reiners, University of Arizona, USA

Richard W. Carlson, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA

Paul R. Renne, Berkeley Geochronology Center and University of California, USA

Kari M. Cooper, University of California, USA

Darryl E. Granger, Purdue University, USA

Noah M. McLean, University of Kansas, USA

Blair Schoene, Princeton University, USA

Inhalt

Preface, ix

1 Introduction, 1

1.1 Geo and chronologies, 1

1.2 The ages of the age of the earth, 2

1.3 Radioactivity, 7

1.4 The objectives and significance of geochronology, 13

1.5 References, 15

2 Foundations of radioisotopic dating, 17

2.1 Introduction, 17

2.2 The delineation of nuclear structure, 17

2.3 Nuclear stability, 19

2.3.1 Nuclear binding energy and the mass defect, 19

2.3.2 The liquid drop model for the nucleus, 20

2.3.3 The nuclear shell model, 22

2.3.4 Chart of the nuclides, 23

2.4 Radioactive decay, 23

2.4.1 Fission, 23

2.4.2 Alpha-decay, 24

2.4.3 Beta-decay, 25

2.4.4 Electron capture, 25

2.4.5 Branching decay, 25

2.4.6 The energy of decay, 25

2.4.7 The equations of radioactive decay, 27

2.5 Nucleosynthesis and element abundances in the solar system, 30

2.5.1 Stellar nucleosynthesis, 30

2.5.2 Making elements heavier than iron: s-, r-, p-process nucleosynthesis, 31

2.5.3 Element abundances in the solar system, 32

2.6 Origin of radioactive isotopes, 33

2.6.1 Stellar contributions of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, 33

2.6.2 Decay chains, 33

2.6.3 Cosmogenic nuclides, 33

2.6.4 Nucleogenic isotopes, 35

2.6.5 Man-made radioactive isotopes, 36

2.7 Conclusions, 36

2.8 References, 36

3 Analytical methods, 39

3.1 Introduction, 39

3.2 Sample preparation, 39

3.3 Extraction of the element to be analyzed, 40

3.4 Isotope dilution elemental quantification, 42

3.5 Ion exchange chromatography, 43

3.6 Mass spectrometry, 44

3.6.1 Ionization, 46

3.6.2 Extraction and focusing of ions, 49

3.6.3 Mass fractionation, 50

3.6.4 Mass analyzer, 52

3.6.5 Detectors, 57

3.6.6 Vacuum systems, 60

3.7 Conclusions, 62

3.8 References, 63

4 Interpretational approaches: making sense of data, 65

4.1 Introduction, 65

4.2 Terminology and basics, 65

4.2.1 Accuracy, precision, and trueness, 65

4.2.2 Random versus systematic, uncertainties versus errors, 66

4.2.3 Probability density functions, 67

4.2.4 Univariate (one-variable) distributions, 68

4.2.5 Multivariate normal distributions, 68

4.3 Estimating a mean and its uncertainty, 69

4.3.1 Average values: the sample mean, sample variance, and sample standard deviation, 70

4.3.2 Average values: the standard error of the mean, 70

4.3.3 Application: accurate standard errors for mass spectrometry, 71

4.3.4 Correlation, covariance, and the covariance matrix, 73

4.3.5 Degrees of freedom, part 1: the variance, 73

4.3.6 Degrees of freedom, part 2: Student's t distribution, 73

4.3.7 The weighted mean, 75

4.4 Regressing a line, 76

4.4.1 Ordinary least-squares linear regression, 76

4.4.2 Weighted least-squares regression, 77

4.4.3 Linear regression with uncertainties in two or more variables (York regression), 77

4.5 Interpreting measured data using the mean square weighted deviation, 79

4.5.1 Testing a weighted mean's assumptions using its MSWD, 79

4.5.2 Testing a linear regression's assumptions using its MSWD, 80

4.5.3 My data set has a high MSWDwhat now?, 81

4.5.4 My data set has a really low MSWDwhat now?, 81

4.6 Conclusions, 82

4.7 Bibliography and suggested readings, 82

5 Diffusion and thermochronologic interpretations, 83

5.1 Fundamentals of heat and chemical diffusion, 83

5.1.1 Thermochronologic context, 83

5.1.2 Heat and chemical diffusion equation, 83

5.1.3 Temperature dependence of diffusion, 85

5.1.4 Some analytical solutions, 86

5.1.5 Anisotropic diffusion, 86

5.1.6 Initial infinite concentration (spike), 86

5.1.7 Characteristic length and time scales, 86

5.1.8 Semi-infinite media, 87

5.1.9 Plane sheet, cylinder, and sphere, 88

5.2 Fractional loss, 88

5.3 Analytical methods for measuring diffusion, 89

5.3.1 Step-heating fractional loss experiments, 89

5.3.2 Multidomain diffusion, 92

5.3.3 Profile characterization, 93

5.4 Interpreting thermal histories from thermochronologic data, 94

5.4.1 End-members of thermochronometric date interpretations, 94

5.4.2 Equilibrium dates, 95

5.4.3 Partial retention zone, 95

5.4.4 Resetting dates, 96

5.4.5 Closure, 97

5.5 From thermal to geologic histories in low-temperature thermochronology: diffusion and advection of heat in the earth's crust, 105

5.5.1 Simple solutions for one- and two-dimensional crustal thermal fields, 107

5.5.2 Erosional exhumation, 108

5.5.3 Interpreting spatial patterns of erosion ra...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Geochronology and Thermochronology
Autor:
EAN: 9781118455906
ISBN: 978-1-118-45590-6
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: American Geophysical Union
Genre: Geologie
Anzahl Seiten: 480
Veröffentlichung: 21.11.2017
Jahr: 2017
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 57.8 MB