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Molecular Mechanisms of Parasite Invasion

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All of the parasitic organisms highlighted in this new book represent medically important human pathogens that contribute signific... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

All of the parasitic organisms highlighted in this new book represent medically important human pathogens that contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. As such there is intense interest in understanding the molecular basis of infection by these pathogens-not only with regard to their clinical relevance but also the fascinating biology they reveal. For most of the parasites discussed here the ability to penetrate biological barriers and/or to establish intracellular residence is critical to survival of the pathogen in the mammalian hosts. For other parasites, a tissue invasive phenotype is a key virulence determinant. In the ensuing 18 chapters, select members of this diverse set of protozoan parasites, as well as some examples of the extremely reduced fungal parasites classified as Microsporidia, are discussed within the context of the fascinating molecular strategies employed by these organisms to migrate across biological barriers and to establish residence within target host cells.



Zusammenfassung

In biological terms, a parasite can be defined as an organism that grows, feeds and is sheltered on, or in, a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of the host.1 This relationship is particularly intimate for parasitic protozoa (and single-celled fungi such as the Microsporidia), many of which not only penetrate tissue barriers, but gain entry into host cells. The entry mechanisms are as diverse as the organisms employing them and are often critical components of their pathogenic profile. All of the parasitic organisms highlighted in this new book represent medically important human pathogens that contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. As such there is intense interest in understanding the molecular basis of infection by these pathogensnot only with regard to their clinical relevance but also the fascinating biology they reveal. For most of the parasites discussed here (Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp.) the ability to penetrate biological barriers and/or to establish intracellular residence is critical to survival of the pathogen in the mammalian hosts. For other parasites, such as Entamoeba, a tissue invasive phenotype is a key virulence determinant. In the ensuing 18 chapters, select members of this diverse set of protozoan parasites, as well as some examples of the extremely reduced fungal parasites classified as Microsporidia, are discussed within the context of the fascinating molecular strategies employed by these organisms to migrate across biological barriers and to establish residence within target host cells.



Inhalt
TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface xxi SECTION I: TOOLS AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES 1. Current and Emerging Approaches to Studying Invasion in Apicomplexan Parasites 1 Jeffrey Mital and Gary E. Ward SECTION II: RECEPTOR-LIGAND INTERACTION 2. Microneme Proteins in Apicomplexans 33 Vern B. Carruthers and Fiona M. Tomley 3. Erythrocyte Invasion by Plasmodium falciparum: Multiple Ligand-Receptor Interactions and Phenotypic Switching 46 Manoj T. Duraisingh, Tiffany DeSimone, Cameron Jennings, Philippe Refour and Chenwei Wu 4. Role of the gp85/Trans-Sialidase Superfamily of Glycoproteins in the Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with Host Structures 58 Maria Júlia M. Alves and Walter Colli SECTION III: SIGNALING PATHWAYS 5. Calcium Regulation and Signaling in Apicomplexan Parasites 70 Kisaburo Nagamune, Silvia N. Moreno, Eduardo N. Chini and L. David Sibley 6. Trypanosoma cruzi: Parasite and Host Cell Signaling during the Invasion Process 82 Nobuko Yoshida and Mauro Cortez SECTION IV: ACTIN DYNAMICS: HOST AND PARASITE 7. Host Cell Actin Remodeling in Response to Cryptosporidium 92 Steven P. O'Hara, Aaron J. Small, Xian-Ming Chen and Nicholas F. LaRusso 8. Host Cell Actin Remodeling in Response to Trypanosoma cruzi: Trypomastigote Versus Amastigote Entry 101 Renato A. Mortara, Walter K. Andreoli, Maria Cecília D.C. Fernandes, Claudio V. da Silva, Adriana B. Fernandes, Carolina L'Abbate, and Solange da Silva 9. Actin/Myosin-Based Gliding Motility in Apicomplexan Parasites 110 Kai Matuschewski and Herwig Schüler SECTION V: PROTEASES 10. Roles of Proteases during Invasion and Egress by Plasmodium and Toxoplasma 121 Timothy J. Dowse, Konstantinos Koussis, Michael J. Blackman andDominique Soldati-Favre 11. Roles of Naturally Occurring Protease Inhibitors in the Modulation of Host Cell Signaling and Cellular Invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi 140 Julio Scharfstein and Ana Paula C.A. Lima SECTION VI: THE PARASITOPHOROUS VACUOLE 12. Biogenesis of and Activities at the Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane 155 Anthony P. Sinai 13. The Role of Host Cell Lysosomes in Trypanosoma cruzi Invasion 165 G. Adam Mott and Barbara A. Burleigh 14. Leishmania Invasion and Phagosome Biogenesis 174 Robert Lodge and Albert Descoteaux SECTION VII: PENETRATING BIOLOGICAL BARRIERS 15. Plasmodium Sporozoite Passage across the Sinusoidal Cell Layer 182 Ute Frevert, Ivan Usynin, Kerstin Baer and Christian Klotz 16. Transepithelial Migration by Toxoplasma 198 Antonio Barragan and Niclas Hitziger 17. The Microsporidian Polar Tube and Its Role in Invasion 208 Frédéric Delbac and Valérie Polonais 18. Intestinal Invasion by Entamoeba histolytica 221 Shahram Solaymani-Mohammadi and William A. Petri, Jr. Index 233

Produktinformationen

Titel: Molecular Mechanisms of Parasite Invasion
Editor:
EAN: 9780387782676
ISBN: 978-0-387-78267-6
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Herausgeber: Springer
Genre: Medizin
Anzahl Seiten: 237
Veröffentlichung: 05.12.2008
Jahr: 2008
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 34.0 MB