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Bats and Human Health

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An important resource that reviews the various infectious diseases that affect bats and bat populations Bats and Human Health: Ebo... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

An important resource that reviews the various infectious diseases that affect bats and bat populations

Bats and Human Health: Ebola, SARS, Rabies and Beyond covers existing literature on viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal infections of bats and how these infections affect bat populations. The book also offers an overview of the potential for zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases from bats to humans or domestic animals. While most prior publications on the subject have dealt only with bat viral infections, this text closely covers a wide range of bat infections, from viral and bacterial infections to protist and fungal infections.

Chapters on viral infections cover rabies, filoviruses, henipaviruses, and other RNA viruses, as well as information on bat virome studies. The book then provides information on bacterial infections-including arthropod-borne and other bacteria that affect bats-before moving on to protist infections, including apicomplexans and kinetoplastids, and fungal infections, including white-nose syndrome, histoplasma capsulatum, and other fungi. Comprehensive in scope, yet another key feature of this book is a searchable database that includes bat species, bat family, bat diet, bat location, type and classification of infecting microbes, and categories of microbes. This vital resource also: 

  • Provides a history and comprehensive overview of bat-borne diseases
  • Incorporates information from the World Health Organization, as well as historical data from the National Libraries of Health and infectious disease journals
  • Covers a variety of diseases including viral infections, bacterial infections, protist infections, and fungal infections

Written for microbiologist, bat researchers, and conservationists, Bats and Human Health provides a comprehensive exploration of the various types of microbes that affect bats and their potential to affect human populations.



About the Author
Lisa A. Beltz
is an Associate Professor of Natural Sciences at Malone University in Canton, Ohio, USA.

Autorentext

About the Author
Lisa A. Beltz
is an Associate Professor of Natural Sciences at Malone University in Canton, Ohio, USA.

Inhalt

Foreword xv

A Brief Introduction to Unique Features of Bats in Relation to Infectious Diseases xv

About the companion website xix

I Introduction 1

1 BAT IMMUNOLOGY 3

1.1 Introduction to the Immune System of Bats 3

1.1.1 White blood cell count and other serological parameters 3

1.1.2 Innate versus adaptive immunity 4

1.1.3 MicroRNA 5

1.2 Viral Pattern?Recognition Receptors and the Bat Immune Response to Microbes 5

1.3 Introduction to the Interferons 7

1.3.1 Regulation of interferon production 7

1.3.2 The JAK?STAT pathway and interferon?stimulated genes 8

1.3.3 Type I interferons 10

1.3.4 Type II interferon 12

1.3.5 Type III interferons 12

1.3.6 Viral avoidance of the host IFN response 14

1.4 Antibodies and B Lymphocytes 15

1.5 Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, and Proinflammatory Cytokines 16

1.6 T Lymphocytes 17

1.7 Other Parameters of the Immune Response 18

1.8 Conclusions 19

References 21

II Viral Infections of Bats 25

2 RABIES VIRUS AND OTHER BAT RHABDOVIRUSES 27

2.1 Introduction to the Family Rhabdoviridae 27

2.2 Lyssaviruses 27

2.2.1 Rabies virus 32

2.2.2 Other lyssaviruses of bats 36

2.2.3 Lyssavirus transmission 40

2.2.4 Lyssavirus sites of infection 41

2.2.5 Lyssavirus entry into cells 42

2.2.6 Prevention of lyssavirus infection 43

2.2.7 Immune response to lyssaviruses 44

2.2.8 Lyssavirus surveillance 45

2.3 Other Rhabdoviruses 45

2.3.1 The Kern Canyon serogroup of genus Vesiculovirus 46

2.3.2 Kumasi rhabdovirus 47

2.3.3 Unclassified rhabdoviruses 47

2.4 Conclusions 48

References 49

3 HENIPAVIRUSES AND OTHER PARAMYXOVIRUSES OF BATS 53

3.1 Introduction to Paramyxoviridae 53

3.2 Diseases Associated with Paramyxoviridae 59

3.2.1 Henipaviruses and disease 59

3.2.2 Morbilliviruses and disease 59

3.2.3 Rubulaviruses and disease 60

3.3 Henipaviruses in Bats 60

3.3.1 Henipaviruses in bats from Oceania and Southeast Asia 60

3.3.2 Henipaviruses and bats from Africa 61

3.3.3 Henipaviruses in bats from Madagascar 62

3.3.4 Henipavirus proteins and infection of bats 62

3.4 Hendra Virus 64

3.4.1 Hendra virus in Australian bats, horses, and humans 64

3.4.2 Factors affecting levels of Hendra viruses in bats and the potential for zoonotic transmission 65

3.5 Nipah Virus 66

3.5.1 Nipah virus in humans and pigs 66

3.5.2 Nipah virus in bats from Malaysia and Indonesia 67

3.5.3 Nipah virus in bats from India and Bangladesh 68

3.5.4 Interspecies Nipah virus transmission via date palm sap and bat urine 68

3.6 Cedar Virus 70

3.7 Protective Bat Responses to Henipavirus Infection 70

3.7.1 The interferon/STAT pathway and henipaviruses 70

3.7.2 Antibodies and henipaviruses 72

3.7.3 Apoptosis 72

3.8 Methods of Preventing Henipavirus Infection 73

3.9 Rubulaviruses 74

3.9.1 Bat parainfluenza virus 74

3.9.2 Menangle virus in bats and domestic animals 74

3.9.3 Tioman virus in bats and humans 75

3.9.4 Tuhoko viruses in bats 75

3.9.5 Achimota viruses in bats 75

3.9.6 Sosuga virus in bats and humans 76

3.9.7 Jeilongvirus in bats 76

3.9.8 Mumps?like bat virus 76

3.9.9 Mapuera virus in bats 76

3.10 Morbilliviruses in Bats 77

3.11 Belinga bat Virus 77

3.12 Large, Multiviral Studies of Paramyxoviruses in Bats 78

3.12.1 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Asia 78

3.12.2 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Africa 78

3.12.3 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Madagascar and islands of the Southwest Indian Ocean 79

3.12.4 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Oceania 79

3.13 Conclusions 80

References 82

4 FILOVIRUSES AND BATS 89

4.1 Filoviruses 89

4.1.1 History of filovirus infection 90

4.1.2 Filovirus disease 91

4.1.3 The roles of viral proteins 91

4.2 Marburg Virus 96

4.2.1 Marburg virus in humans and bats 96

4.2.2 Experimental infection of bats with Marburg virus 98

4.3 Ebola Virus 99

4.3.1 Ebola virus in humans and bats 99

4.3.2 Ebola virus and bats prior to the 2014 outbreak 99

4.3.3 EBOV incidence in bats during and after the 2014 outbreak 100

4.4 Lloviu and Related Filoviruses in Bats 101

4.5 Seasonality of Filovirus Infection in Bats 101

4.6 Factors Affecting Zoonotic Infection by Filoviruses 102

4.7 Filoviruses in Animals Other Than Bats 103

4.8 Conclusions 104

References 106

5 BATS AND CORONAVIRUSES 111

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 SARS Coronavirus 114

Produktinformationen

Titel: Bats and Human Health
Untertitel: Ebola, SARS, Rabies and Beyond
Autor:
EAN: 9781119150053
ISBN: 978-1-119-15005-3
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley-Blackwell
Genre: Mikrobiologie
Anzahl Seiten: 416
Veröffentlichung: 11.10.2017
Jahr: 2017
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 0.7 MB