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Photovoltaics

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Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement t... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic

After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics’ history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconductors, band model of semiconductors, charge transport in semiconductors, doping in semiconductors, the pn-junction, and the interaction of light with semiconductors. Chapter 3 considers the structure and functioning of the solar cell, by covering mode of operation, electrical description of real solar cells, and HHhigh efficiency cells. The next chapter presents cell technologies – the manufacture of crystalline silicon cells and amorphous silicon. It looks at other thin film cells, hybrid wafer cells, and finally concentrator systems. In the middle of the book, solar modules and solar generators are discusses. Subjects covered here include properties of solar modules, the interconnection of solar modules, DC-components, and types of PV-plants. Chapter 7 overviews photovoltaic systems technology, including solar generator and load, grid-connected systems, and off-grid systems, before Chapter 8 overviews photovoltaic measurement technology. Towards the end of the book, the planning and operation of grid-connected systems are described. Readers can learn about the economical efficiency of PV systems here, as well as see operation results of concrete plants. The final chapter looks to the future development of PV, including efficient promotion instruments and price development. The last section provides exercises and a useful appendix. 

  • A broad introduction to the photovoltaics technology for those wanting to get introduced
  • Cohesive coverage and a logical balance of topics provide a solid first course in photovoltaics
  • Describes up-to-date concepts and issues such as grid or off-grid applications, along with explanations of the established technology
  • End-of-chapter exercises to deepen readers’ knowledge
  • Describes the physics of solar radiation and PV cells along with practical knowledge on the enabling systems technology to take PV technology to market

A valuable text for Undergraduate engineering students, starting a course in renewable energy; technicians and engineers new to the photovoltaics industry who need to become acquainted with the basics and the latest technical and economical status of photovoltaics; as well as Engineers in energy companies; installers of photovoltaics; planners and operators; consultants; financers, potential energy investors and decision makers; politicians.



Autorentext

Professor Konrad Mertens, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Münster University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Konrad Mertens was appointed Professor at Muenster University of Applied Sciences in 2000. He covers the subjects of photovoltaics, sensor technology and optoelectronics. He is founder and head of the photovoltaic test lab and head of the lab of sensor technology and optoelectronics at his university. Previous to this, he worked in industry as project engineer and project manager in the fields of photovoltaivs and intelligent networks. Professor Mertens is author of the German text Photovoltaik - Grundlagen, Technologie und Praxis, and is court-appointed expert for photovoltaic plants.



Klappentext

A comprehensive andup-to-date tutorial on all aspects of photovoltaic technology

Starting with the basic principles of solar energy, this practical text explains the fundamentals of semiconductor physics, and the structure and functioning of the solar cell. It describes current measurement techniques for solar modules, and the planning and operation of grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic (PV) systems.

Key features:

  • clarifies the technical and economic perspectives of PV energy generation, whilst providing an overview on the current economic status;
  • discusses the future development of PV, including efficient promotion instruments and price development;
  • each chapter contains various exercises and descriptive examples, with operation results from concrete PV plants;
  • an accompanying website hosting exercise solutions, links to further PV references, and free downloads of the figures and additional software at www.textbook-pv.org.

For renewable energy undergraduate students, technicians and engineers wanting to know which technologies and concepts exist, how solar cells work and how to design a complete PV plant, this book is an essential reference. This is also a useful resource for PV installers, planners, operators, consultants, financers, potential energy investors and politicians.



Zusammenfassung

Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems, PV cells, PV measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of PV electricity for students and engineers new to the topic

Starting with the basic principles of solar energy, this practical text explains the fundamentals of semiconductor physics and the structure and functioning of the solar cell. It describes current measurement techniques for solar modules, and the planning and operation of grid-connected and off-grid PV systems.

Key features:

  • clarifies the technical and economic perspectives of PV energy generation, whilst providing an overview on the current economic status
  • discusses the future development of PV, including efficient promotion instruments and price development
  • each chapter contains various exercises and descriptive examples, with operation results from concrete PV plants
  • an accompanying website hosting exercise solutions, links to further PV references, and free downloads of the figures and additional software www.textbook-pv.org

This is an essential text for renewable energy students, technicians and engineers wanting to know how solar cells work and how to design a complete PV plant. It is also a useful resource for PV installers, planners, operators, consultants, financers, potential energy investors and politicians.



Inhalt
Preface xi

Abbreviations xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Why Photovoltaics? 1

1.1.2 Who Should Read this Book? 2

1.1.3 Structure of the Book 2

1.2 What is Energy? 3

1.2.1 Definition of Energy 3

1.2.2 Units of Energy 4

1.2.3 Primary, Secondary and End Energy 5

1.2.4 Energy Content of Various Substances 6

1.3 Problems with Today's Energy Supply 7

1.3.1 Growing Energy Requirements 7

1.3.2 Tightening of Resources 8

1.3.3 Climate Change 9

1.3.4 Hazards and Disposal 10

1.4 Renewable Energies 11

1.4.1 The Family of Renewable Energies 11

1.4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Renewable Energies 12

1.5 Photovoltaic The Most Important in Brief 12

1.5.1 What Does Photovoltaic Mean? 13

1.5.2 What are Solar Cells and Solar Modules? 13

1.5.3 How is a Typical Photovoltaic Plant Structured? 14

1.5.4 What Does a Photovoltaic Plant Bring? 14

1.6 History of Photovoltaics 15

1.6.1 How it all Began 15

1.6.2 The First Real Solar Cells 16

1.6.3 From Space to Earth 18

1.6.4 From Toy to Energy Source 18

2 Solar Radiation 21

2.1 Properties of Solar Radiation 21

2.1.1 Solar Constant 21

2.1.2 Spectrum of the Sun 22

2.1.3 Air Mass 23

2.2 Global Radiation 24

2.2.1 Origin of Global Radiation 24

2.2.2 Contributions of Diffuse and Direct Radiation 25

2.2.3 Global Radiation Maps 25

2.3 Calculation of the Position of the Sun 29

2.3.1 Declination of the Sun 29

2.3.2 Calculating the Path of the Sun 31

2.4 Radiation on Tilted Surfaces 33

2.4.1 Radiation Calculation with the Three-Component Model 33

2.4.2 Radiation Estimates with Diagrams and Tables 37

2.4.3 Yield Gain through Tracking 38

2.5 Radiation Availability and World Energy Consumption 40

2.5.1 The Solar Radiation Energy Cube 40

2.5.2 The Sahara Miracle 41

3 Fundamentals of Semiconductor Physics 43

3.1 Structure of Semiconductors 43

3.1.1 Bohr's Atomic Model 43

3.1.2 Periodic Table of the Elements 45

3.1.3 Structure of the Silicon Crystal 46

3.1.4 Compound Semiconductors 47

3.2 Band Model of the Semiconductor 47

3.2.1 Origin of Energy Bands 47

3.2.2 Differences in Isolators, Semiconductors and Conductors 48

3.2.3 Intrinsic Carrier Concentration 49

3.3 Charge Transport in Semiconductors 50

3.3.1 Field Currents 50

3.3.2 Diffusion Currents 52

3.4 Doping of Semiconductors 53

3.4.1 n-Doping 53

3.4.2 p-Doping 54

3.5 The p-n Junction 54

3.5.1 Principle of Method of Operation 55

3.5.2 Band Diagram of the p-n Junction 56

3.5.3 Behavior with Applied Voltage 58

3.5.4 Diode Characteristics 59

3.6 Interaction of Light and Semiconductors 60

3.6.1 Phenomenon of Light Absorption 60

3.6.2 Light Reflection on Surfaces 64

4 Structure and Method of Operation of Solar Cells 67

4.1 Consideration of the Photodiode 67

4.1.1 Structure and Characteristics 67

4.1.2 Equivalent Circuit 69

4.2 Method of Function of the Solar Cell 69

4.2.1 Principle of the Structure 69

4.2.2 Recombination and Diffusion Length 70

4.2.3 What Happens in the Individual Cell Regions? 71

4.2.4 Back-Surface Field 73

4.3 Photocurrent 73

4.3.1 Absorption Efficiency 74

4.3.2 Quantum Efficiency 75

4.3.3 Spectral Sensitivity 76

4.4 Characteristic Curve and Characteristic Dimensions 77

4.4.1 Short Circuit Current ISC 78

4.4.2 Open Circuit Voltage VOC 78

4.4.3 Maximum Power Point (MPP) 79

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Produktinformationen

Titel: Photovoltaics
Untertitel: Fundamentals, Technology and Practice
Autor:
EAN: 9781118703373
ISBN: 978-1-118-70337-3
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Sonstiges
Anzahl Seiten: 296
Veröffentlichung: 02.12.2013
Jahr: 2013
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 12.7 MB