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Hydrogeology

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lt;p>Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

lt;p>Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2004.
The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology. Unique features of the book are chapters on the applications of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and on regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density in the explanation of geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including an assessment of possible adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change.
Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors’ teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the over-pressuring of groundwater in sedimentary basins. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader’s knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology.
This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater science. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater.
Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/hiscock/hydrogeology



Kevin Hiscock is a Professor in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia, UK.  He has over 30 years’ experience in teaching and research in hydrogeology, with interdisciplinary interests in hydrochemistry, environmental isotopes and the impacts of land use and climate change on groundwater resources at regional and global scales.

Victor Bense
is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia, UK.  He has over 15 years’ experience in teaching and research in hydrogeology, with specialist interests in the impact of shallow fault zones in unconsolidated sediments on groundwater flow and the hydrogeology of arctic regions under changing climate.



Autorentext

Kevin Hiscock is a Professor in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia, UK. He has over 30 years' experience in teaching and research in hydrogeology, with interdisciplinary interests in hydrochemistry, environmental isotopes and the impacts of land use and climate change on groundwater resources at regional and global scales.

Victor Bense
is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia, UK. He has over 15 years' experience in teaching and research in hydrogeology, with specialist interests in the impact of shallow fault zones in unconsolidated sediments on groundwater flow and the hydrogeology of arctic regions under changing climate.



Klappentext

Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2004.

The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology. Unique features of the book are chapters on the applications of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and on regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density in the explanation of geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including an assessment of possible adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change.

Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors' teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the over-pressuring of groundwater in sedimentary basins. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader's knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology.

This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater science. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater.



Inhalt
List of colour plates, xi

List of boxes, xiv

Preface to the second edition, xvi

Preface to the first edition, xvii

Acknowledgements, xviii

Symbols and abbreviations, xix

About the companion website, xxiii

1. Introduction, 1

1.1 Scope of this book, 1

1.2 What is hydrogeology?, 2

1.3 Early examples of groundwater exploitation, 3

1.4 History of hydrogeology, 5

1.5 The water cycle, 10

1.6 Groundwater as a natural resource, 12

1.7 Management and protection of groundwater resources in the United Kingdom, 20

1.8 European Union Water Framework Directive, 21

1.9 Management and protection of groundwater resources in the United States, 22

1.10 Groundwater resources in developing countries, 23

1.11 Future challenges for groundwater management, 25

Further reading, 26

References, 26

2. Physical hydrogeology, 29

2.1 Introduction, 29

2.2 Porosity, 29

2.3 Hydraulic conductivity, 31

2.4 Isotropy and homogeneity, 33

2.5 Aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes, 33

2.6 Darcy's Law, 35

2.6.1 Hydraulic properties of fractured rocks, 38

2.6.2 Karst aquifer properties, 41

2.7 Groundwater potential and hydraulic head, 43

2.8 Interpretation of hydraulic head and groundwater conditions, 44

2.8.1 Groundwater flow direction, 44

2.8.2 Water table and potentiometric surface maps, 46

2.8.3 Types of groundwater conditions, 53

2.9 Transmissivity and storativity of confined aquifers, 57

2.9.1 Release of water from confined aquifers, 58

2.10 Transmissivity and specific yield of unconfined aquifers, 66

2.11 Equations of groundwater flow, 67

2.11.1 Steady-state saturated flow, 67

2.11.2 Transient saturated flow, 68

2.11.3 Transient unsaturated flow, 68

2.12 Analytical solution of one-dimensional groundwater flow problems, 69

2.13 Groundwater flow patterns, 74

2.14 Classification of springs and intermittent streams, 81

2.15 Transboundary aquifer systems, 86

2.16 Submarine groundwater discharge, 92

2.17 Groundwater resources of the world, 97

2.18 Hydrogeological environments of the United Kingdom, 99

2.18.1 Sedimentary rocks, 99

2.18.2 Metamorphic rocks, 104

2.18.3 Igneous rocks, 105

Further reading, 105

References, 105

3. Groundwater and geological processes, 109

3.1 Introduction, 109

3.2 Geological processes driving fluid flow, 109

3.3 Topography-driven flow in the context of geological processes, 110

3.4 Compaction-driven fluid flow, 110

3.5 Variable-density driven fluid flow, 114

3.5.1 Salinity gradients leading to variable-density flow, 114

3.5.2 Hydrothermal systems driven by variable-density flow, 119

3.6 Regional groundwater flow systems driven predominantly by variable-density flow, 120

3.6.1 Fluctuating sea-level and its impact on the distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal areas, 120

3.6.2 Brines in continental aquifers, 126

3.7 Regional groundwater flow systems driven predominantly by shifting topography and stress changes, 126

3.7.1 Mountain building and erosion, 127

3.7.2 Impact of glaciations on regional hydrogeology, 127

3.8 Coupling and relative importance of processes driving fluid flow, 133

Further reading, 133

References, 134

4. Chemical hydrogeology, 135

4.1 Introduction, 135

4.2 Properties of water, 135

4.3 Chemical composition of groundwater, 137

4.4 Sequence of hydrochemical evolution of groundwater, 139

4.5 Groundwater sampling and graphical presentation of hydrochemical data, 140

4.6 Concept of chemical equilibrium, 151

4.6.1 Kinetic approach to chemical equilibrium, 151

4.6.2 Energetic approach to chemical equilibrium, 152

4.7 Carbonate chemistry of groundwater, 154

4.8 Adsorption and ion exchange, 165

4.9 Redox chemistry, 172

4.10 Groundwater in crystalline rocks, 181

Further reading, 188

References, 188

5. Environmental isotope hydrogeology, 191

5.1 Introduction, 191

5.2 Stable isotope chemistry and nomenclature, 191

5.3 Stable isotopes of water, 192

5.4 Age dating of groundwater, 198

5.4.1 Law of radioactive decay, 198

5.4.2 14C dating, 198

5.4.3 36Cl dating, 202

5.4.4 Tritium dating, 202

5.4.5 3H/3He dating, 205

5.5 Noble gases, 206

Further reading, 209

References, 209

6. Groundwater and catchment processes, 211

6.1 Introduction, 211

6.2 Water balance equation, 211

6.3 Precipitation and evapotranspiration, 213

6.3.1 Precipitation measurement, 213

6.3.2 Evapotr...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Hydrogeology
Untertitel: Principles and Practice
Autor:
EAN: 9781118738702
ISBN: 978-1-118-73870-2
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley-Blackwell
Genre: Geowissenschaften
Anzahl Seiten: 552
Veröffentlichung: 07.04.2014
Jahr: 2014
Auflage: 2. Aufl.
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 38.6 MB