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Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering

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A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement tools, techniques, and applications 'When you can measure what you a... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement tools, techniques, and applications

'When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science.' - Lord Kelvin

Measurement is at the heart of any engineering and scientific discipline and job function. Whether engineers and scientists are attempting to state requirements quantitatively and demonstrate compliance; to track progress and predict results; or to analyze costs and benefits, they must use the right tools and techniques to produce meaningful data.

The Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference set on engineering and scientific measurements-beyond anything on the market today. Encyclopedic in scope, Volume 3 covers measurements in physics, electrical engineering and chemistry:

  • Laser Measurement Techniques
  • Magnetic Force Images using Capacitive Coupling Effect
  • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
  • Measurement of Light and Color
  • The Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation
  • Measuring Time and Comparing Clocks
  • Laboratory-Based Gravity Measurement
  • Cryogenic Measurements
  • Temperature-Dependent Fluorescence Measurements
  • Voltage and Current Transducers for Power Systems
  • Electric Power and Energy Measurement
  • Chemometrics for the Engineering and Measurement Sciences
  • Liquid Chromatography
  • Mass Spectroscopy Measurements of Nitrotyrosine-Containing Proteins
  • Fluorescence Spectroscopy
  • X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
  • Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy
  • Nanomaterials Properties
  • Chemical Sensing
Vital for engineers, scientists, and technical managers in industry and government, Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering will also prove ideal for academics and researchers at universities and laboratories.

Myer Kutz holds engineering degrees from RPI and MIT. He was Vice President and General Manager of Wiley's STM division and has consulted and authored for most of the major professional and technical publishing houses. He is the author of 7 books and the editor of more than 20 handbooks.

Autorentext

Myer Kutz holds engineering degrees from RPI and MIT. He was Vice President and General Manager of Wiley's STM division and has consulted and authored for most of the major professional and technical publishing houses. He is the author of 7 books and the editor of more than 20 handbooks.

Inhalt

VOLUME 3

List of Contributors xxi

PREFACE xxv

Part VII Physics and Electrical Engineering 1943

54 Laser Measurement Techniques 1945
Cecil S. Joseph, Gargi Sharma, Thomas M. Goyette, and Robert H. Giles

54.1 Introduction, 1945

54.1.1 History and Development of the MASER, 1945

54.1.2 Basic Laser Physics, 1946

54.1.3 Laser Beam Characteristics, 1951

54.1.4 Example: CO2 Laser Pumped Far?Infrared Gas Laser Systems, 1956

54.1.5 Heterodyned Detection, 1959

54.1.6 Transformation of Multimode Laser Beams from THz Quantum Cascade Lasers, 1962

54.1.7 Suggested Reading, 1965

54.2 Laser Measurements: Laser?Based Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems, 1965

54.2.1 ISAR Theory, 1966

54.2.2 DFT in Radar Imaging, 1967

54.2.3 Signal Processing Considerations: Sampling Theory, 1970

54.2.4 Measurement Calibration, 1971

54.2.5 Example Terahertz Compact Radar Range, 1972

54.2.6 Suggested Reading, 1974

54.3 Laser Imaging Techniques, 1974

54.3.1 Imaging System Measurement Parameters, 1975

54.3.2 Terahertz Polarized Reflection Imaging of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers, 1981

54.3.3 Confocal Imaging, 1985

54.3.4 Optical Coherence Tomography, 1987

54.3.5 Femtosecond Laser Imaging, 1990

54.3.6 Laser Raman Spectroscopy, 1996

54.3.7 Suggested Reading, 1997

References, 1997

55 Magnetic Force Images Using Capacitive Coupling Effect 2001
Byung I. Kim

55.1 Introduction, 2001

55.2 Experiment, 2004

55.2.1 Principle, 2004

55.2.2 Instrumentation, 2004

55.2.3 Approach, 2005

55.3 Results and Discussion, 2006

55.3.1 Separation of Topographic Features from Magnetic Force Images Using Capacitive Coupling Effect, 2007

55.3.2 Effects of Long?Range TipSample Interaction on Magnetic Force Imaging: A Comparative Study Between Bimorph?Driven System and Electrostatic Force Modulation, 2012

55.4 Conclusion, 2020

References, 2021

56 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 2025
Kwok?Wai Ng

56.1 Introduction, 2025

56.2 Theory of Operation, 2026

56.3 Measurement of the Tunnel Current, 2030

56.4 The Scanner, 2032

56.5 Operating Mode, 2035

56.6 Coarse Approach Mechanism, 2036

56.7 Summary, 2041

References, 2042

57 Measurement of Light and Color 2043
John D. Bullough

57.1 Introduction, 2043

57.2 Lighting Terminology, 2043

57.2.1 Fundamental Light and Color Terms, 2043

57.2.2 Terms Describing the Amount and Distribution of Light, 2047

57.2.3 Terms Describing Lighting Technologies and Performance, 2048

57.2.4 Common Quantities Used in Lighting Specification, 2052

57.3 Basic Principles of Photometry and Colorimetry, 2056

57.3.1 Photometry, 2056

57.3.2 Colorimetry, 2063

57.4 Instrumentation, 2072

57.4.1 Illuminance Meters, 2072

57.4.2 Luminance Meters, 2072

57.4.3 Spectroradiometers, 2074

References, 2074

58 The Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation 2075
Clair J. Sullivan

58.1 Introduction, 2075

58.2 Common Interactions of Ionizing Radiation, 2076

58.2.1 Radiation Interactions, 2076

58.3 The Measurement of Charge, 2077

58.3.1 Counting Statistics, 2078

58.3.2 The Two Measurement Modalities, 2080

58.4 Major Types of Detectors, 2081

58.4.1 Gas Detectors, 2081

58.4.2 Ionization Chambers, 2086

58.4.3 Proportional Counters, 2090

58.4.4 GM Detectors, 2092

58.4.5 Scintillators, 2092

58.4.6 Readout of Scintillation Light, 2094

58.4.7 Semiconductors, 2096

58.5 Neutron Detection, 2100

58.5.1 Thermal Neutron Detection, 2102

58.5.2 Fast Neutron Detection, 2104

58.6 Concluding Remarks, 2106

References, 2106

59 Measuring Time and Comparing Clocks 2109
Judah Levine

59.1 Introduction, 2109

59.2 A Generic Clock, 2109

59.3 Characterizing the Stability of Clocks and Oscillators, 2110

59.3.1 Worst?Case Analysis, 2111

59.3.2 Statistical Analysis and the Allan Variance, 2113

59.3.3 Limitations of the Statistics, 2116

59.4 Characteristics of Different Types of Oscillators, 2117

59.5 Comparing Clocks and Oscillators, 2119

59.6 Noise Models, 2121

59.6.1 White Phase Noise, 2121

59.6.2 White Frequency Noise, 2122

59.6.3 Long?Period Effects: Frequency Aging, 2123

59.6.4 Flicker Noise, 2124

59.7 Measuring Tools and Methods, 2126

59.8 Measurement Strategies, 2129

59.9 The Kalman Estimator, 2133

59.10 Transmitting Time and Frequency Information, 2135

59.10.1 Modeling ...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering
Editor:
EAN: 9781119244738
ISBN: 978-1-119-24473-8
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Allgemeines, Lexika
Anzahl Seiten: 832
Veröffentlichung: 17.06.2016
Jahr: 2016
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 35.2 MB