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Fish Processing

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This book seeks to address the challenges facing the international seafood industry via a two pronged approach: by offering the la... Weiterlesen
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This book seeks to address the challenges facing the international seafood industry via a two pronged approach: by offering the latest information on established technologies and introducing new ideas and technologies. An introductory chapter sets the tone for the book by presenting the background against which fish processing will exist in the near future. Chapter two looks at the environmental and sustainability issues relating to conventional fish processing, including processing efficiency and better use of the outputs currently considered wastes. The impact of mechanisation and computerisation on environmental sustainability is also addressed. Subsequent chapters examine the latest developments in established fish processing technologies such as canning, curing, freezing and chilling, with an emphasis on the environmental aspects of packaging and the process itself. In addition, quality and processing parameters for specific species, including new species, are described.

The second part of the book gives authors the opportunity to introduce the potential technologies and applications of the future to a wider audience. These include fermented products and their acceptance by a wider audience; the utilisation of fish processing by-products as aquaculture feeds; and the use of by-products for bioactive compounds in biomedical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and other applications.

Dr George M. Hall, Research Fellow, Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK


About the Editor

Dr George M. Hall, Research Fellow, Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK


Fish Processing Sustainability and New Opportunities Edited by George M. Hall

This volume seeks to address the sustainability challenges facing the international seafood industry. These issues centre mainly on energy usage, water usage, effluents and by-product development opportunities. The world fisheries sector offers a good example of the difficulties in applying sustainability principles to a complex set of relationships, involving not just the technologies that could militate against environmental damage but also the economics and human societal imperatives behind them. Fish is food, providing nutrition and livelihoods for millions of people across the world and, because the fish processing industry sits between the fish producer and the consumer, there is a need for influences from both sides to be considered.

The book addresses established processes first, covering the latest developments in canning, curing,freezing and surimi production. Subsequent chapters look at new areas, or those not usually included in conventional processing: fermented products, onboard processing, fish meal and oil production issues and high-value bioactive compounds. Three additional linking chapters offer an introduction to sustainability and fisheries, the use of Life Cycle Assessment and supply chain approaches to measure the environmental impact of fish processing and, finally, a case study on the transport of fish in the UK.

The aim of the book is to spark an interest not only in the technologies that can help to ensure a sustainable world fishery, but also the contexts in which they operate. The subtitle of the book, Sustainability and New Opportunities, is intended to show that the challenges of a sustainable industry are also opportunities for new product development and process innovation. It is aimed at scientists and technologists working in the global seafood industry, suppliers to the industry, regulatory bodies, and researchers and students of food science and technology.


Preface xi

Contributors xii

1 Introduction: Challenges to the Fish-Processing Industry in a Resource-Starved World 1
George M. Hall

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Defining sustainability 1

1.1.2 Sustainable development concepts for FPI 4

1.2 Sustainability tools 8

1.2.1 Carbon footprinting 9

1.2.2 Carbon labelling 9

1.2.3 Life cycle assessment 10

1.2.4 The supply chain 14

1.3 Climate change 15

1.4 The capture fishery 17

1.4.1 Current production levels 17

1.4.2 Future trends and fisheries management 17

1.5 Contribution of aquaculture 19

1.5.1 Current production levels 19

1.5.2 Future trends 19

1.5.3 Barriers to increased production 20

1.6 Industrial fish production 21

1.6.1 Current levels 21

1.6.2 Future trends 22

1.6.3 Redefining 'industrial species' 22

1.7 Implications for the processing industry 22

1.7.1 Efficiency in processing 22

1.7.2 Food security and trade 23

1.7.3 Introducing new food species 24

1.7.4 Post-harvest losses 25

1.7.5 Environmental impact of fish processing 26

1.8 Conclusion: sustainability in the fish-processing industry 27

References 28

2 Canning Fish and Fish Products 30
George M. Hall

2.1 Principles of canning 30

2.1.1 Thermal destruction of fish-borne bacteria 30

2.1.2 Quality criteria for thermally processed fish 34

2.2 Packaging materials 34

2.2.1 Glass jars 35

2.2.2 Rigid metal containers 35

2.2.3 Rigid plastic containers 37

2.2.4 Flexible containers (pouches) 37

2.2.5 Environmental issues related to packaging materials 37

2.3 Processing operations 39

2.3.1 Pre-processing operations 40

2.3.2 Heat-processing operations 44

2.3.3 Post-processing operations 46

2.3.4 Environmental issues and process optimization 46

2.4 Canning of specific species 47

2.4.1 Small pelagics 48

2.4.2 Tuna and mackerel 48

2.4.3 Crustacea 48

2.5 Conclusions 48

References 49

3 Preservation by Curing (Drying, Salting and Smoking) 51
George M. Hall

3.1 Basic relationships 51

3.1.1 Water activity and spoilage 51

3.1.2 Product quality 53

3.2 Drying 53

3.2.1 Air- or contact drying 53

3.2.2 Improving the efficiency of drying 55

3.3 Salting 55

3.3.1 Wet and dry salting 55

3.3.2 Quality aspects 56

3.4 Smoking 57

3.4.1 The preservative effect 57

3.4.2 Quality aspects 57

3.4.3 Smoking systems and equipment 58

3.4.4 Traditional systems 59

3.4.5 Fuel wood for traditional fish smoking 62

3.5 Post-harvest losses in fish smoking 65

3.5.1 Sustainable livelihoods approach 67

3.5.2 Assessing post-harvest fisheries losses 70

3.6 Sustainability issues 74

References 75

4 Freezing and Chilling of Fish and Fish Products 77
George M. Hall

4.1 Introduction 77

4.1.1 Freezing time calculations 77

4.1.2 Effect of freezing on micro-organisms and parasites 79

4.1.3 Physico-chemical effects during freezing 79

4.1.4 Temperature modelling in fish transportation 81

4.2 Freezing systems 82

4.2.1 The refrigeration cycle 82

4.2.2 Classification of freezers 83

4.2.3 Air-blast freezers 84

4.2.4 Immersion freezers 86

4.2.5 Plate freezers 86

4.2.6 Cryogenic freezers 86

4.3 Environmental impact of freezing operations 87

4.3.1 Energy efficiency of freezing systems 87

4.3.2 Cold storage systems 88


Titel: Fish Processing
Untertitel: Sustainability and New Opportunities
EAN: 9781444348026
ISBN: 978-1-4443-4802-6
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley-Blackwell
Genre: Sonstiges
Anzahl Seiten: 312
Veröffentlichung: 13.06.2011
Jahr: 2011
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 5.7 MB