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Gas Hydrates 1

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Gas hydrates, or clathrate hydrates, are crystalline solids resembling ice, in which small (guest) molecules, typically gases, are... Weiterlesen
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Gas hydrates, or clathrate hydrates, are crystalline solids resembling ice, in which small (guest) molecules, typically gases, are trapped inside cavities formed by hydrogen-bonded water (host) molecules. They form and remain stable under low temperatures - often well below ambient conditions - and high pressures ranging from a few bar to hundreds of bar, depending on the guest molecule. Their presence is ubiquitous on Earth, in deep-marine sediments and in permafrost regions, as well as in outer space, on planets or comets. In addition to water, they can be synthesized with organic species as host molecules, resulting in milder stability conditions: these are referred to as semi-clathrate hydrates. Clathrate and semi-clathrate hydrates are being considered for applications as diverse as gas storage and separation, cold storage and transport and water treatment.

This book is the first of two edited volumes, with chapters on the experimental and modeling tools used for characterizing and predicting the unique molecular, thermodynamic and kinetic properties of gas hydrates (Volume 1) and on gas hydrates in their natural environment and for potential industrial applications (Volume 2).

Daniel Broseta, University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour, France.

Livio Ruffine, French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer), France.

Arnaud Desmedt, University of Bordeaux, France.


Preface ix

Chapter 1 Neutron Scattering of Clathrate and Semiclathrate Hydrates 1
Arnaud DESMEDT, Laura BEDOURET, Jacques OLLIVIER and Claire PETUYA

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Neutron scattering 2

1.2.1 A basic ideal scattering experiment 3

1.2.2 Neutron scattering theory 4

1.2.3 Correlation functions 6

1.2.4 Coherent and incoherent scattering 7

1.2.5 A simple example of scattering 11

1.3 Probing structural and dynamical properties of gas hydrates 14

1.3.1 Structures 15

1.3.2 Relaxation of guest molecules and water molecules 16

1.3.3 Excitations and vibrational density of states 19

1.4 Selected examples 22

1.4.1 Inhibition and formation mechanisms 22

1.4.2 Guest replacement in gas hydrates 29

1.4.3 Hydrogen: from its dynamics properties to its storage capabilities 33

1.4.4 Ionic clathrate hydrates and semiclathrates 41

1.5 Concluding remarks 47

1.6 Bibliography 49

Chapter 2 Spectroscopy of Gas Hydrates: From Fundamental Aspects to Chemical Engineering, Geophysical and Astrophysical Applications 63
Bertrand CHAZALLON, Jennifer A NOBLE and Arnaud DESMEDT

2.1 Introduction 63

2.2 Vibrational spectrum 65

2.2.1 Intramolecular modes 66

2.2.2 Intermolecular modes 68

2.3 Applications to the investigation of formation mechanism 72

2.3.1 Formation mechanism: nucleation and growth 72

2.3.2 The Raman contribution 74

2.3.3 Insights from IR spectroscopy 77

2.3.4 Formation mechanism: chemical engineering applications 81

2.4 NGHs: contribution of spectroscopy 84

2.5 Clathrate hydrates in astrophysical environments 92

2.5.1 IR spectroscopy of astrophysical ices 93

2.5.2 Interstellar ices 94

2.5.3 Solar system ices 96

2.5.4 Insights from laboratory spectroscopy 100

2.6 Concluding remarks 101

2.7 Bibliography 102

Chapter 3 High-Resolution Optical Microscopy of Gas Hydrates 113
Nelly HOBEIKA, Maria Lourdes MARTINEZ DE BAÑOS, Patrick BOURIAT, Daniel BROSETA and Ross BROWN

3.1 Introduction 113

3.2 Optical methods 114

3.2.1 Beyond bright-field modes in optical microscopy 114

3.2.2 Brewster angle microscopy 123

3.3 Selected examples 126

3.3.1 Hydrate halos growing on glass substrates 128

3.3.2 Hydrate crystallization in a guest-in-water emulsion 131

3.3.3 Adsorption of kinetic hydrate inhibitors 136

3.4 Concluding remarks 141

3.5 Acknowledgments 142

3.6 Bibliography 142

Chapter 4 Calorimetric Characterization of Clathrate and Semiclathrate Hydrates 145

4.1 Introduction 145

4.2 DTA and differential scanning calorimetry 146

4.2.1 Principles of DTA and DSC 146

4.2.2 Examples of pressure-controlled DTA and DSC devices for hydrate studies 147

4.2.3 Temperature calibration of DSC 152

4.3 Phase equilibrium determination in hydrate systems using pressure-controlled TDA and DSC 153

4.3.1 Proper exploitation of DSC thermograms 153

4.4 Measuring the heat of dissociation and heat capacity of gas hydrates 158

4.4.1 Quantitative in situ hydrate formation 160

4.4.2 Indirect enthalpy measurement and gas content evaluation 162

4.4.3 Heat capacity measurement 163

4.5 Measuring the kinetics of hydrate formation 166

4.6 Conclusion 168

4.7 Bibliography 169

Chapter 5 Thermodynamic Modeling of SolidFluid Equilibria: From Pure Solid Phases to Gas Semiclathrate Hydrates 177

5.1 Introduction 177

5.2 Solidfluid equilibrium between a fluid mixture and a pure solid phase 179

5.2.1 Solidl...


Titel: Gas Hydrates 1
Untertitel: Fundamentals, Characterization and Modeling
EAN: 9781119427629
ISBN: 978-1-119-42762-9
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Herausgeber: Wiley-Iste
Genre: Physik, Astronomie
Anzahl Seiten: 302
Veröffentlichung: 06.07.2017
Jahr: 2017
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 15.8 MB