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Druggable Lipid Signaling Pathways

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Lipids are responsible not just for constituting cellular membrane but also for storing energy, transducing signaling, and modifying proteins. Bioactive lipids, or lipid mediators, transduce signaling as intracellular messenger like phosphoinoitides, and also regulate cell-cell communication through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are potentially valuable drug targets in many diseases. Until now, about 40 GPCRs within ~300 rhodopsin-like (class A) GPCRs, are identified as lipid GPCRs. Advances of lipid research have enabled to develop novel small molecules targeting lipid GPCRs for several diseases. Most notably, fingolimod (FTY720), a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, became the first FDA-approved medicine as an orally bioavailable drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to fingolimod, other drugs targeting lipid GPCRs had been developed such as latanoprost (prostaglandin F2a analogue, used for ocular hypertension and glaucoma), epoprostenol and treprostinil (prostaglandin I2 analogue, used for pulmonary arterial hypertension), montelukast and pranlukast (cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, used for asthma and allergies), etc. Novel drugs are also expected like lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor antagonist for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

Drug development targeting lipid signalling pathways are backdated to more than a century, when aspirin was synthesized and selling by Bayer, while the basic mechanism of aspirin's effects (block prostanoid synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenases) had not been discovered until 1970s. Nowadays, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin and ibuprophen are commonly used as antipyretic analgesics and available readily over-the-counter oral drugs. Both upstream and downstream enzymes, such as phospholipase A2s and prostaglandin E synthases, respectively, are also potential therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases.

Recent studies of lipid metabolism expand the lipid biology field from pro-inflammatory lipid mediators to anti-inflammatory epoxy fatty acids (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), and also omega-3 fatty acid-derived pro-resolving lipid mediators (lipoxin, resolvin, and neuroprotectin). These bioactive lipids, their metabolic pathways and receptors are of great interest in developing next-generation anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving drugs for a wide variety of diseases including.

This book summarizes not only historical overview of lipid signaling pathways but also provides summary of cutting-edge studies that may provide some hints of novel "druggable" lipid signaling targets.

Professor Kihara is a Research Assistant Professor at the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute in San Diego, California. His  translational research is focused on G-protein coupled receptors and their role in disease. 


This edited work presents a series of reviews focusing on Druggable Lipid Signaling Pathways. It enables researchers in both academic institutions and industry as well as physicians to understand historical aspects of lipid signaling and future directions of drug discovery targeting lipid signaling pathways. This book provides 9 pathways including acyltransferases, prostanoids, leukotrienes, epoxy fatty acids, sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, endocannabinoids, phosphoinositides, and lipid GPCRs.

Readers will discover the importance of each lipid signaling pathway that contributes to broad range of diseases including neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, pain, metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dermatological diseases, fibrosis, inflammation, etc. Also, readers will recognize that many drugs targeting lipid signaling have been clinically used. Drugs currently under development are also discussed in each chapter, which includes some information about clinical trials and strategic drug designs. 


1.       Introduction of Druggable Lipid Signaling Pathway

Yasuyuki Kihara


2.       Biosynthetic Enzymes of Membrane Glycerophospholipid Diversity as Therapeutic Targets for Drug Development

William J. Valentine, Tomomi Hashidate-Yoshida, Shota Yamamoto, Hideo Shindou


3.       Druggable Prostanoid Pathway

Liudmila L. Mazaleuskaya and Emanuela Ricciotti


4.       Targeting Leukotrienes as a Therapeutic Strategy to Prevent Comorbidities Associated with Metabolic Stress

Theresa Ramalho, Nayara Pereira, Stephanie L. Brandt, and Henrique Serezani


5.       Epoxy Fatty Acids are Promising Targets for Treatment of Pain, Cardiovascular Disease and Other Indications Characterized by Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Endoplasmic Stress and Inflammation

Cindy McReynolds, Christophe Morisseau, Karen Wagner, and Bruce Hammock


6.       Druggable Sphingolipid Pathway

Victoria Blaho


7.       Druggable Lysophospholipid Pathway

Keisuke Yanagida and William J. Valentine


8.       Druggable targets in endocannabinoid signaling

Ann M. Gregus and Matthew W. Buczynski


9.       Drugging the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K) family of enzymes for treatment of cancer, immune disorders, and viral/parasitic infections

Jacob A. McPhail and John E. Burke


10.    Druggable Lipid GPCRs:  Past, Present, and Prospects

Hirotaka Mizuno and Yasuyuki Kihara



Titel: Druggable Lipid Signaling Pathways
EAN: 9783030506216
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Hersteller: Springer International Publishing
Genre: Medizin
Veröffentlichung: 07.09.2020
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen
Dateigrösse: 7.32 MB
Anzahl Seiten: 260

Weitere Bände aus der Buchreihe "Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology"