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Chemistry In Alternative Reaction Media

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Beschreibung

At a time when environmental concerns are increasing, it's important that chemical processes are as environmentally friendly as possible. This book outlines various methods for producing inorganic and organic solvents without the use of traditional solvents that can have detrimental effects on the environment.

  • This is the first book to give extensive and exclusive coverage to the topic
  • Includes important environmental issues

This book will appeal to anyone with an interest in organic synthesis; reaction chemistry; catalysis; and process development, and to undergraduate and graduate students of organic chemistry; catalysis; green chemistry; clean technology and environmental chemistry courses.

Autorentext

Dave J. Adams is the author of Chemistry In Alternative Reaction Media, published by Wiley.

Paul J. Dyson is the author of Chemistry In Alternative Reaction Media, published by Wiley.

Stewart J. Tavener is the author of Chemistry In Alternative Reaction Media, published by Wiley.



Klappentext
The use of organic solvents and their emissions has been at the centre of major environmental concern in recent years, and there is currently a great deal of interest in finding alternatives to halogenated and volatile organic solvents for synthesis.

Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media explores why solvents are used and the problems associated with them. It describes the state-of-the art in solvent replacement technologies. Supercritical fluids, biphasic reactions, ionic and fluorous liquids, and aqueous chemistry are brought together in a single textbook, which explains how they may be used to increase reaction efficiency, improve separation and catalyst recovery, and reduce emissions to the environment.

As well as describing the principles behind these methods, and the environmental, economic and chemical advantages that these alternatives can bring, numerous examples of applications are given including most major reaction types, and consideration is given to potential scale-up and industrial use.

This book will appeal to anyone with an interest in organic synthesis; reaction chemistry; catalysis; and process development, and to undergraduate and graduate students of organic chemistry; catalysis; green chemistry; clean technology and environmental chemistry courses.



Zusammenfassung
At a time when environmental concerns are increasing, it's important that chemical processes are as environmentally friendly as possible. This book outlines various methods for producing inorganic and organic solvents without the use of traditional solvents that can have detrimental effects on the environment.
  • This is the first book to give extensive and exclusive coverage to the topic
  • Includes important environmental issues

This book will appeal to anyone with an interest in organic synthesis; reaction chemistry; catalysis; and process development, and to undergraduate and graduate students of organic chemistry; catalysis; green chemistry; clean technology and environmental chemistry courses.



Inhalt
Preface.

Abbreviations and Acronyms.

1 Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media.

1.1 Economic and Political Considerations.

1.2 Why Do Things Dissolve?

1.3 Solvent Properties and Solvent Classification.

1.3.1 Density.

1.3.2 Mass Transport.

1.3.3 Boiling Point, Melting Point and Volatility.

1.3.4 Solvents as Heat-Transfer Media.

1.3.5 Cohesive Pressure, Internal Pressure, and Solubility Parameter.

1.4 Solvent Polarity.

1.4.1 Dipole Moment and Dispersive Forces.

1.4.2 Dielectric Constant.

1.4.3 Electron Pair Donor and Acceptor Numbers.

1.4.4 Empirical Polarity Scales.

1.4.5 ENT and ET(30) Parameters.

1.4.6 KamletTaft Parameters.

1.4.7 Hydrogen Bond Donor (HBD) and Hydrogen Bond Acceptor (HBA) Solvents.

1.5 The Effect of Solvent Polarity on Chemical Systems.

1.5.1 The Effect of Solvent Polarity on Chemical Reactions.

1.5.2 The Effect of Solvent Polarity on Equilibria.

1.6 W hat is Required from Alternative Solvent Strategies?

References.

2 Multiphasic Solvent Systems.

2.1 An Introduction to Multiphasic Chemistry.

2.1.1 The Traditional Biphasic Approach.

2.1.2 Temperature Dependent Solvent Systems.

2.1.3 Single- to Two-Phase Systems.

2.1.4 Multiphasic Systems.

2.2 Solvent Combinations.

2.2.1 Water.

2.2.2 Fluorous Solvents.

2.2.3 Ionic Liquids.

2.2.4 Supercritical Fluids and Other Solvent Combinations.

2.3 Benefits and Problems Associated with Multiphasic Systems.

2.3.1 Partially Miscible Liquids.

2.4 Kinetics of Homogeneous Reactions.

2.4.1 Rate is Independent of Stoichiometry.

2.4.2 Rate is Determined by the Probability of Reactants Meeting.

2.4.3 Rate is Measured by the Concentration of the Reagents.

2.4.4 Catalysed Systems.

2.5 Kinetics of Biphasic Reactions.

2.5.1 The Concentration of Reactants in Each Phase is Affected by Diffusion.

2.5.2 The Concentration of the Reactants and Products in the Reacting Phase is Determined by Their Partition Coefficients.

2.5.3 The Partition Coefficients of the Reactants and Products May Alter the Position of the Equilibrium.

2.5.4 Effect of Diffusion on Rate.

2.5.5 Determining the Rate of a Reaction in a Biphasic System.

2.6 Conclusions.

References.

3 Reactions in Fluorous Media.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Properties of Perfluorinated Solvents.

3.3 Designing Molecules for Fluorous Compatibility.

3.4 Probing the Effect of Perfluoroalkylation on Ligand Properties.

3.5 Partition Coefficients.

3.6 LiquidLiquid Extractions.

3.7 Solid Separations.

3.8 Conclusions.

References.

4 Ionic Liquids.

4.1 Introduction.

4.1.1 The Cations and Anions.

4.1.2 Synthesis of Ionic Liquids.

4.2 Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids.

4.3 Benefits and Problems Associated with Using Ionic Liquids in Synthesis.

4.4 Catalyst Design.

4.5 Conclusions.

References.

5 Reactions in Water.

5.1 The Structure and Properties of Water.

5.1.1 The Structure of Water.

5.1.2 Near-Critical Water.

5.1.3 The Hydrophobic Effect.

5.1.4 The Salt Effect.

5.2 The Benefits and Problems Associated with Using Water in Chemical Synthesis.

5.3 Organometallic Reactions in Water.

5.4 Aqueous Biphasic Catalysis.

5.4.1 Ligands for AqueousOrganic Biphasic Catalysis.

5.5 Phase Transfer Catalysis.

5.5.1 The Transfer of Nucleophiles into Organic Solvents.

5.5.2 Mechanisms of Nucleophilic Substitutions Under Phase Transfer Conditions.

5.5.3 The Rates of Phase Transfer Reactions.

5.5.4 Using Inorganic Reagents in Organic Reactions.

5.6 Organometallic Catalysis under Phase Transfer Conditions.

5.7 Triphase Catalysis.

5.7.1 Mixing Efficiency in SolidLiquid Reactions.

5.8 Conclusions.

References.

6 Supercritical Fluids.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Physical Properties.

6.3 Local Density Augmentation.

6.4 Supercritical Fluids as Replacement Solvents.

6.5 Reactor Design.

6.6 Spectroscopic Analysis of Supercritical Media.

6.6.1 Vibrational Spectroscopy.

6.6.2 NMR Spectroscopy.

6.7 Reactions in Supercritical Media.

6.8 Conclusions.

References.

7 DielsAlder Reactions in Alternative Media.

7.1 DielsAlder Reactions in Water.

7.2 DielsAlder Reactions in Perfluorinated Solvents.

7.3 DielsAlder Reactions in Ionic Liquids.

7.4 DielsAlder Reactions in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

7.5 Conclusions.

References.

8 Hydrogenation and ...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Chemistry In Alternative Reaction Media
Autor:
EAN: 9780470869659
ISBN: 978-0-470-86965-9
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Chemie
Anzahl Seiten: 268
Veröffentlichung: 01.09.2005
Jahr: 2005
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 5.1 MB