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Plant Defense

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Plant Defense provides an overview of all major aspects of plant defence, including defence against pathogens, parasites, and inve... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Plant Defense provides an overview of all major aspects of plant defence, including defence against pathogens, parasites, and invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores. The book looks at defense mechanisms including structural and chemical defences, and constitutive and inducible defences. Including details of how plants 'sense' attack and how this is communicated within the plant and also to neighbouring plants, how plants coordinate defence responses to simultaneous multiple attacks, and the energy and resources expended by a plant in maintaining and implementing its defence systems.

Dale Walters is based at Crop & Soil Systems Research Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, U. K.

Autorentext
Dale Walters is based at Crop & Soil Systems Research Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, U. K.

Klappentext

Plants are sources of nourishment for thousands of fungi, bacteria, invertebrates, vertebrates, and other plants. Plants possess a truly remarkable diversity of mechanisms to fend off attackers and recent research has shown just how complex and sophisticated these defense mechanisms can be. Plant Defense provides comprehensive coverage of the range of different organisms that plants need to fend off, describes how plants coordinate their defenses against multiple attacks, explains the evolution of defense in plants, and how plant defences are exploited in crop protection strategies. Plant Defense: Covers plants defenses against pathogens, pests, and parasitic plants: together in one book Brings together succinct, cutting edge information in a user-friendly format Gives an understanding of how plants ward off attacks from multiple enemies Is written by Dale Walters, an internationally known and respected researcher and teacher in crop protection, who distils his wealth of knowledge in a novel and exciting way Is an essential purchase for all those involved in plant protection around the globe Plant Defense is primarily designed for use by upper undergraduates and post graduates studying crop protection, agricultural sciences, applied entomology, plant pathology, and plant sciences. Biological and agricultural research scientists in the agrochemical and crop protection industries, and in academia, will find much of great use in this excellent new book. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where agricultural and biological sciences are studied and taught should have multiple copies of this very valuable book on their shelves.



Inhalt
Preface.

Chapter 1. Why Do Plants Need Defenses?
1.1 Plants as sources of food.
1.2 Organisms that use plants as food.
1.2.1 Microorganisms.
1.2.2 Parasitic angiosperms.
1.2.3 Nematodes.
1.2.4 Insects.
1.2.5 Vertebrates.
1.3 Impact of infection and herbivory in natural and agricultural ecosystems.
1.3.1 Microorganisms.
1.3.2 Parasitic angiosperms.
1.3.3 Nematodes.
1.3.4 Insects.
1.3.5 Vertebrates.
1.4 Conclusions.
Recommended reading.
References.

Chapter 2. What Defenses Do Plants Use?
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Defenses used against pathogens.
2.2.1 Background.
2.2.2 Passive or preexisting defenses.
2.2.2.1 Preexisting structural defenses.
2.2.2.2 Preexisting chemical defenses.
2.2.3 Active or inducible defenses.
2.2.3.1 Inducible structural defenses.
2.2.3.2 Inducible chemical defenses.
2.2.4 Defenses used against pathogensthe next step.
2.3 Defenses used against parasitic plants.
2.3.1 Background.
2.3.2 Preattachment defense mechanisms.
2.3.3 Prehaustorial defense mechanisms.
2.3.4 Posthaustorial defense mechanisms.
2.4 Defenses used against nematodes.
2.4.1 Background.
2.4.2 Passive or preexisting defenses.
2.4.3 Active or inducible defenses.
2.4.3.1 Phenylpropanoid metabolism.
2.4.3.2 Hypersensitive response.
2.5 Defenses used against herbivorous insects.
2.5.1 Background.
2.5.2 Physical barriers.
2.5.2.1 Waxes on the leaf surface.
2.5.2.2 Trichomes.
2.5.2.3 Secretory canals.
2.5.2.4 Leaf toughness and leaf folding.
2.5.3 Chemical defenses.
2.5.3.1 Terpenes.
2.5.3.2 Phenolics.
2.5.3.3 Nitrogen-containing organic compounds.
2.5.3.4 Arthropod-inducible proteins.
2.5.3.5 Volatile compounds.
2.6 Defenses used against vertebrate herbivores.
2.6.1 Background.
2.6.2 Physical defenses.
2.6.3 Chemical defenses.
2.6.3.1 Phenolic compounds.
2.6.3.2 Terpenoids.
2.6.3.3 Nitrogen-containing compounds.
2.6.3.4 Other chemicals.
2.6.3.5 A final word on chemical defenses against vertebrate herbivory.
2.7 Defenses used against neighboring plantsallelopathy.
2.7.1 Background.
2.7.2 Allelopathy and the black walnut.
2.7.3 Allelopathy and the Californian chaparral.
2.7.4 Allelopathy and spotted knapweed.
2.8 Conclusions.
Recommended reading.
References.

Chapter 3. Sounding the Alarm: Signaling and Communication in Plant Defense.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Signaling in plantpathogen interactions.
3.2.1 Introduction.
3.2.2 Local signaling and basal resistance.
3.2.2.1 SA signaling.
3.2.2.2 JA signaling.
3.2.2.3 ET signaling.
3.2.2.4 Signaling involving other plant hormones.
3.2.3 Systemic signaling and induced resistance.
3.2.3.1 Induced resistance.
3.2.3.2 Signaling during SAR.
3.2.3.3 Signaling during ISR.
3.2.3.4 Priming.
3.2.4 Volatile signaling.
3.3 Signaling in plantnematode interactions.
3.3.1 Introduction.
3.3.2 SA signaling.
3.3.3 JA signaling.
3.4 Signaling in plantinsect herbivore interactions.
3.4.1 Introduction.
3.4.2 Local signaling.
3.4.2.1 JA signaling.
3.4.2.2 ET signaling.
3.4.2.3 SA signaling.
3.4.2.4 Specificity and regulation of jasmonate-based defenses.
3.4.3 Systemic signaling.
3.4.3.1 Systemin.
3.4.3.2 JA signaling.
3.4.3.3 Within leaf signaling.
3.4.4 Volatile signaling.
3.4.5 Priming.
3.5 Signaling in interactions between plants and vertebrate herbivores.
3.6 Signaling in interactions between plants and parasitic plants.
3.7 Conclusions.
Recommended reading.
References.

Chapter 4. Plant Defense in the Real World: Multiple Attackers and Beneficial Interactions.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Dealing with multiple attackers: cross-talk between signaling pathways.
4.2.1 Trade-offs associated with triggering SA-mediated defenses.
4.2.1.1 SA suppression of JA-induced defenses.
4.2.1.2 Molecular basis of SA suppression of JA defenses.
4.2.1.3 Ecological costs of resistance to biotrophic versus necrotrophic pathogens.
4.2.1.4 Trade-offs with mutualistic symbioses.
4.2.1.5 Effects of SA- and JA-mediated defenses on bacterial communities associated with plants.
4.2.2 Triggering SA-dependent defenses does not always compromise defense against insect herbivores.
4.2.3 Trade-offs and positive outcomes associated with triggering JA-dependent defenses.
4.2.4 Putting it all together: orchestrating the appropriate defense response.
4.3 Can beneficial plantmicrobe interactions induce res...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Plant Defense
Untertitel: Warding off attack by pathogens, herbivores and parasitic plants
Autor:
EAN: 9781444347739
ISBN: 978-1-4443-4773-9
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley-Blackwell
Genre: Sonstiges
Anzahl Seiten: 248
Veröffentlichung: 09.06.2011
Jahr: 2011
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 3.6 MB