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Gas Treating

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Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas,... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved.  The book concentrates in particular on the absorption-desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction.

Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explained and the traditional mass transfer model mechanisms are presented together with mass transfer correlations. This is followed by the central point of the text in which mass transfer is combined with chemical reaction, highlighting the associated possibilities and problems. Experimental techniques, data analysis and modelling are covered, and the book concludes with a discussion on various process elements which are important in the absorption-desorption process, but are often neglected in its treatment. These include heat exchange, solution management, process flowsheet variations, choice of materials and degradation of absorbents. The text is rounded off with an overview of the current state of research in this field and a discussion of real-world applications. 

This book is a practical introduction to gas treating for practicing process engineers and chemical engineers working on purification technologies and gas treatment, in particular those working on CO2 abatement processes, as well as post-graduate students in process engineering, chemical engineering and chemistry.



Autorentext
Dag A. Eimer
Tel-Tek and Telemark University College, Norway

Klappentext

Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved. The book concentrates in particular on the absorptiondesorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction.

Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explained and the traditional mass transfer model mechanisms are presented together with mass transfer correlations. This is followed by the central point of the text in which mass transfer is combined with chemical reaction, highlighting the associated possibilities and problems. Experimental techniques, data analysis and modelling are covered, and the book concludes with a discussion on various process elements which are important in the absorptiondesorption process, but are often neglected in its treatment. These include heat exchange, solution management, process flowsheet variations, choice of materials and degradation of absorbents. The text is rounded off with an overview of the current state of research in this field and a discussion of real-world applications.

This book is a practical introduction to gas treating for practicing process engineers and chemical engineers working on purification technologies and gas treatment, in particular, those working on CO2 abatement processes, as well as post-graduate students in process engineering, chemical engineering and chemistry.



Inhalt

Preface xvii

List of Abbreviations xxi

Nomenclature List xxv

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Definitions 1

1.2 Gas Markets, Gas Applications and Feedstock 3

1.3 Sizes 3

1.4 Units 4

1.5 Ambient Conditions 7

1.6 Objective of This Book 7

1.7 Example Problems 7

1.7.1 Synthesis Gas Plant 8

1.7.2 Natural Gas Treatment 9

1.7.3 Natural Gas Treatment for LNG 9

1.7.4 Flue Gas CO2 Capture from a CCGT Power Plant 9

1.7.5 Flue Gas CO2 Capture from a Coal Based Power Plant 11

1.7.6 CO2 Removal from Biogas 11

1.7.7 CO2 Removal from Landfill Gas 12

1.7.8 Summarising Plant Sizes Just Considered 12

References 13

2. Gas Treating in General 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Process Categories 16

2.2.1 Absorption 16

2.2.2 Adsorption 17

2.2.3 Cryogenics 19

2.2.4 LNG Trains 30

2.2.5 Membranes 36

2.3 Sulfur Removal 37

2.3.1 Scavengers 38

2.3.2 Adsorption 39

2.3.3 Direct OxidationLiquid Redox Processes 39

2.3.4 Claus Plants 41

2.3.5 Novelties 43

2.4 Absorption Process 43

References 45

3. Rate of Mass Transfer 49

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 The Rate Equation 50

3.3 Co-absorption and/or Simultaneous Desorption 51

3.4 Convection and Diffusion 51

3.5 Heat Balance 51

3.6 Axially along the Column 52

3.7 Flowsheet Simulators 52

3.8 Rate versus Equilibrium Approaches 53

Further Reading 53

4. Chemistry in Acid Gas Treating 55

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 'Chemistry' 57

4.3 Acid Character of CO2 and H2S 63

4.4 The H2S Chemistry with any Alkanolamine 65

4.5 Chemistry of CO2 with Primary and Secondary Alkanolamines 65

4.5.1 Zwitterion Mechanism 66

4.5.2 Termolecular Mechanism of Crooks and Donnellan 67

4.5.3 Australian Approach 69

4.5.4 Older Representations 70

4.6 The Chemistry of Tertiary Amines 72

4.7 Chemistry of the Minor Sulfur Containing Gases 73

4.7.1 The COS Chemistry 74

4.7.2 Chemistry of CS2 76

4.7.3 Chemistry of Mercaptans (RSH) 77

4.8 Sterically Hindered Amines 78

4.9 Hot Carbonate Absorbent Systems 80

4.10 Simultaneous Absorption of H2S and CO2 82

4.11 Reaction Mechanisms and ActivatorsFinal Words 82

4.12 Review Questions, Problems and Challenges 82

References 83

5. Physical Chemistry Topics 87

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 Discussion of Solvents 87

5.3 AcidBase Considerations 90

5.3.1 Arrhenius, Brønsted and Lewis 90

5.3.2 Weak and Strong Acids and Bases 91

5.3.3 pH 91

5.3.4 Strength of Acids and Bases 92

5.3.5 Titration 93

5.3.6 Buffer Action in the NaOH or KOH Based CO2 Absorbents 96

5.4 The AmineCO2 Buffer System 98

5.5 Gas Solubilities, Henry's and Raoult's Laws 100

5.5.1 Henry's Law 101

5.5.2 Gas Solubilities 103

5.5.3 Raoult's Law 104

5.6 Solubilities of Solids 105

5.7 N2O Analogy 105

5.8 Partial Molar Properties and Representation 106

5.9 Hydration and Hydrolysis 107

5.10 Solvation 107

References 108

6. Diffusion 111

6.1 Dilute Mixtures 111

6.2 Concentrated Mixtures 114

6.3 Values of Diffusion Coefficients 116

6.3.1 Gas Phase Values 117

6.3.2 Liquid Phase Values 119

6.4 Interacting Species 121

6.5 Interaction with Surfaces 122

6.6 Multicomponent Situations 122

6.7 Examples 122

6.7.1 Gaseous CO2CH4 122

6.7.2 Gaseous H2OCH4 123

6.7.3 Liquid Phase Diffusion of H2O in TEG 124

References 125

Further Reading 126

7. Absorption Column Mass Transfer Analysis 127

7.1 Introduction 127

7.2 The Column 128

7.3 The Flux Equations 128

7.4 The Overall Mass Transfer Coefficients and the Interface 129

7.4.1 Overall Gas Side Mass Transfer Coefficient 130

7.4.2 Overall Liquid Side Mass Transfer Coefficient 131

7.5 Control Volumes, Mass and Energy Balances 132

7.5.1 The Relation between Gas and Liquid Concentrations 132

7.5.2 Height of Column Based on Gas Side Analysis 134

7.5.3 Height of Column Based on Liquid Side Analysis 134

7.6 Analytical Solution and Its Limitations 135

7.7 The NTUHTU Concept 137

7.8 Operating and Equilibrium Lines A Graphical Representation 138

7.9 Other Concentration Units 139

7.10 Concentrated Mixtures and Simultaneous Absorption 140

7.11 Liquid or Gas Side Control? A Few Pointers 143

7.12 The Equilibrium Stage Alternative Approach 144

7.13 Co-absorption in a Defined Column 145

7.14 Numerical Examples 146

7.14.1 Ammonia Train CO2 Removal wi...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Gas Treating
Untertitel: Absorption Theory and Practice
Autor:
EAN: 9781118877753
ISBN: 978-1-118-87775-3
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Chemie
Anzahl Seiten: 440
Veröffentlichung: 08.08.2014
Jahr: 2014
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 12.0 MB