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Modern Devices

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Focuses on the common recurring physical principles behind sophisticated modern devices This book discusses the principles of phys... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Focuses on the common recurring physical principles behind sophisticated modern devices

This book discusses the principles of physics through applications of state-of-the-art technologies and advanced instruments. The authors use diagrams, sketches, and graphs coupled with equations and mathematical analysis to enhance the reader's understanding of modern devices. Readers will learn to identify common underlying physical principles that govern several types of devices, while gaining an understanding of the performance trade-off imposed by the physical limitations of various processing methods. The topics discussed in the book assume readers have taken an introductory physics course, college algebra, and have a basic understanding of calculus.  

  • Describes the basic physics behind a large number of devices encountered in everyday life, from the air conditioner to Blu-ray discs
  • Covers state-of-the-art devices such as spectrographs, photoelectric image sensors, spacecraft systems, astronomical and planetary observatories, biomedical imaging instruments, particle accelerators, and jet engines
  • Includes access to a book companion site that houses Power Point slides
Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology is designed as a reference for professionals that would like to gain a basic understanding of the operation of complex technologies. The book is also suitable as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate non-major students interested in physics.

Charles L. Joseph, PhD, is a retired research professor from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Rutgers University, who specialized in technology development for NASA flight missions. Prof. Joseph has more than 30 years' experience working closely with aerospace and electro-optical companies as well as government laboratories, taking technologies from experimental breadboard devices to ruggedized instruments suitable for NASA missions. He was a co-investigator and the detector scientist on STIS, a second-generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope.

Santiago Bernal, PhD, is an associated research scientist at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) at the University of Maryland. Dr. Bernal received his B.S. in physics from the National University of Colombia in 1981. He joined the IREAP in 2000 and has since been the leading experimentalist on the University of Maryland Electron Ring.

Autorentext

Charles L. Joseph, PhD, is a retired research professor from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Rutgers University, who specialized in technology development for NASA flight missions. Prof. Joseph has more than 30 years' experience working closely with aerospace and electro-optical companies as well as government laboratories, taking technologies from experimental breadboard devices to ruggedized instruments suitable for NASA missions. He was a co-investigator and the detector scientist on STIS, a second-generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope.

Santiago Bernal, PhD, is an associated research scientist at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) at the University of Maryland. Dr. Bernal received his B.S. in physics from the National University of Colombia in 1981. He joined the IREAP in 2000 and has since been the leading experimentalist on the University of Maryland Electron Ring.

Inhalt

Preface xi

About the Companion Website xv

1 Principles of Physics and the Relevance to Modern Technologies 1

1.1 CM, EM, and QM: The Backbone of Physics 3

1.2 Photonics and Electronics 5

2 Everyday Home Appliances 9

2.1 The Air Conditioner 10

2.2 Microwave Ovens 18

2.3 Smoke Detectors 25

2.4 Compact Discs, Digital Versatile Discs, and Blu-Ray Discs 27

2.5 Photocopiers and Fax Machines 37

3 Devices Encountered in Modern Life 43

3.1 Metal Detectors for Airports and Traffic Lights 43

3.2 Barcode Scanners, Quick Response Codes, and Radio-Frequency Identification Readers 47

3.3 Global Positioning 53

3.4 Transportation Technologies 57

3.4.1 Internal Combustion Engines versus Electric Motors 57

3.4.2 Alternative Fuels 58

3.4.3 Speed Radar Guns 60

3.4.4 High-Speed Rail 67

4 Vacuum Systems: Enabling High-Tech Industries 69

4.1 Vacuum Chamber Technology 70

4.2 Physics of Some Vacuum Gauges 76

4.3 Low Vacuum via Venturi, Mechanical, or Sorption Pumps 78

4.4 HV via Diffusion, Turbomolecular, or Cryogenic Pumps 80

4.5 UHV via Ion Pumps 84

5 Cleanrooms, an Enabling Technology 87

6 Solid-State Electronics 91

6.1 Conducting, Semiconducting, and Insulating Materials 95

6.2 Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors 101

6.3 Diodes and Transistors 110

6.4 FET, JFET, MOSFET, CMOS, and TTL 119

6.5 Summary 124

7 High-Tech Semiconductor Fabrication 127

7.1 Thin Films 127

7.2 Thin-Film Deposition Methods 132

7.3 High-Purity Crystals via MBE 138

7.4 Photolithography and Etch Techniques 141

7.5 In Situ and Intermediate-Stage Tests 145

7.6 Device Structures and IC Packaging 152

8 Materials ScienceInvaluable High-Tech Contributions 155

8.1 The Use of Composite Materials 156

8.2 Thin-Film Multilayers 157

8.3 Nanotechnology 158

9 Light Sources 161

9.1 Incandescent Lamps 166

9.2 Gas Discharge Lamps 168

9.3 Fluorescent Lamps 171

9.4 Light Emitting Diodes 174

9.5 X-Ray Sources 175

9.6 Lasers 177

9.7 Synchrotron Light Sources 180

9.8 Summary of Light Sources 180

10 Some Basic Physics of Optical Systems 183

10.1 Refractive and Reflective Optics and Their Uses 184

10.2 Polarization and Birefringence 188

10.2.1 Law of Malus and Brewster's Angle 188

10.2.2 Dichroism and Birefringence 190

10.2.3 Retarder Plates and Circular Polarization 192

10.3 Diffraction 194

10.3.1 Huygens' Principle and Diffraction from a Single Slit 194

10.3.2 Fresnel Zone Plate 196

10.3.3 Diffraction Gratings 198

10.4 Holography 200

10.4.1 Basic (Absorption) Holography 200

10.4.2 Temporal and Spatial Coherence 202

10.4.3 Other Methods of Holography and Applications 203

10.5 Primary Aberrations 205

11 Optical Couplers Including Optical Fibers 217

11.1 Optical Fibers and Hollow Waveguides 218

11.2 Couplers for Long Distances 223

11.3 Optical Couplers as a Means of Electronic Isolation 228

12 Spectrographs: Reading the Bar Code of Nature 231

12.1 Prisms, Ruled Gratings, and Holographic Gratings 240

12.2 Long-Slit Spectrographs 248

12.3 Integral Field Unit and FabryPérot 249

12.4 Echelle Spectrographs 254

12.5 Raman Spectrographs 255

13 Optical and Electron Microscopy 259

13.1 Optical Microscopes 260

13.1.1 The Magnifier 260

13.1.2 The Compound Microscope 261

13.1.3 Numerical Aperture, Resolution, and Depth of Field 262

13.1.4 Alternative Methods of Optical Microscopy 265

13.2 The Transmission Electron Microscope 266

13.3 ElectronMatter Interactions 271

13.4 Bragg's Diffraction 273

13.5 Scanning Probe Microscopes 275

14 Photoelectric Image Sensors 277

14.1 Solid-State Visible Wavelength Sensors 280

14.2 Photoemissive Devices for UV and X-Rays 284

14.3 Infrared Thermal Sensors and Night Vision Sensors 287

15 Image Display Systems 291

15.1 The Human Visual System 293

15.2 Who Invented Television? 300

15.3 Traditional and High-Definition Tv Display Formats 301

15.4 Cathode Ray Tubes 306

15.5 Liquid Crystal Displays 308

15.6 Plasma Displays 310

15.7 Digital Micro-Mirror Devices 311

15.8 Touch Screens 314

15.9 Electrophoretic Displays 315

15.10 Near-Eye Displays, Augmented Reality, and Virtual Reality 317

15.11 Stereoscopic, Autostereoscopic, and Holographic 3D Displays 319

16 Spacecraft Systems 325

16.1 Operating in Space: An Overview 326

16.2 Attitu...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Modern Devices
Untertitel: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology
Autor:
EAN: 9781119011828
ISBN: 978-1-119-01182-8
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (epub)
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Allgemeines, Lexika
Anzahl Seiten: 528
Veröffentlichung: 02.05.2016
Jahr: 2016
Untertitel: Englisch
Dateigrösse: 63.3 MB