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Fuel Cell Systems Explained

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Since publication of the first edition of Fuel Cell Systems Explained, three compelling drivers have supported the continuing... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Since publication of the first edition of Fuel Cell Systems Explained, three compelling drivers have supported the continuing development of fuel cell technology. These are: the need to maintain energy security in an energy-hungry world, the desire to move towards zero-emission vehicles and power plants, and the mitigation of climate change by lowering of CO2 emissions. New fuel cell materials, enhanced stack performance and increased lifetimes are leading to the emergence of the first truly commercial systems in applications that range from fork-lift trucks to power sources for mobile phone towers. Leading vehicle manufacturers have embraced the use of electric drive-trains and now see hydrogen fuel cells complementing advanced battery technology in zero-emission vehicles. After many decades of laboratory development, a global but fragile fuel cell industry is bringing the first commercial products to market. 

This thoroughly revised edition includes several new sections devoted to, for example, fuel cell characterisation, improved materials for low-temperature hydrogen and liquid-fuelled systems, and real-world technology implementation.  

Assuming no prior knowledge of fuel cell technology, the third edition comprehensively brings together all of the key topics encompassed in this diverse field. Practitioners, researchers and students in electrical, power, chemical and automotive engineering will continue to benefit from this essential guide to the principles, design and implementation of fuel cell systems.



Andrew L Dicks PhD is an Independent Consultant and Adjunct Principal Research Fellow at Griffith University.

David A J Rand PhD ScD was a Chief Research Scientist at CSIRO where, among other duties he served as scientific advisor on hydrogen and renewable energy. In retirement, he is now a CSIRO Honorary Research Fellow.



Autorentext

Andrew L Dicks PhD is an Independent Consultant and Adjunct Principal Research Fellow at Griffith University.

David A J Rand PhD ScD was a Chief Research Scientist at CSIRO where, among other duties he served as scientific advisor on hydrogen and renewable energy. In retirement, he is now a CSIRO Honorary Research Fellow.



Klappentext

Since publication of the first edition of Fuel Cell Systems Explained, three compelling drivers have supported the continuing development of fuel cell technology. These are: the need to maintain energy security in an energy-hungry world, the desire to move towards zero-emission vehicles and power plants, and the mitigation of climate change by lowering of CO2 emissions.

New fuel cell materials, enhanced stack performance and increased lifetimes are leading to the emergence of the first truly commercial systems in applications that range from fork-lift trucks to power sources for mobile phone towers. Leading vehicle manufacturers have embraced the use of electric drive-trains and now see hydrogen fuel cells complementing advanced battery technology in zero-emission vehicles. After many decades of laboratory development, a global but fragile fuel cell industry is bringing the first commercial products to market.

This thoroughly revised edition includes several new sections devoted to, for example, fuel cell characterisation, improved materials for low-temperature hydrogen and liquid-fuelled systems, and real-world technology implementation.

Assuming no prior knowledge of fuel cell technology, the third edition comprehensively brings together all of the key topics encompassed in this diverse field. Practitioners, researchers and students in electrical, power, chemical and automotive engineering will continue to benefit from this essential guide to the principles, design and implementation of fuel cell systems.

Zusammenfassung

Since publication of the first edition of Fuel Cell Systems Explained, three compelling drivers have supported the continuing development of fuel cell technology. These are: the need to maintain energy security in an energy-hungry world, the desire to move towards zero-emission vehicles and power plants, and the mitigation of climate change by lowering of CO2 emissions. New fuel cell materials, enhanced stack performance and increased lifetimes are leading to the emergence of the first truly commercial systems in applications that range from fork-lift trucks to power sources for mobile phone towers. Leading vehicle manufacturers have embraced the use of electric drive-trains and now see hydrogen fuel cells complementing advanced battery technology in zero-emission vehicles. After many decades of laboratory development, a global but fragile fuel cell industry is bringing the first commercial products to market.

This thoroughly revised edition includes several new sections devoted to, for example, fuel cell characterisation, improved materials for low-temperature hydrogen and liquid-fuelled systems, and real-world technology implementation.

Assuming no prior knowledge of fuel cell technology, the third edition comprehensively brings together all of the key topics encompassed in this diverse field. Practitioners, researchers and students in electrical, power, chemical and automotive engineering will continue to benefit from this essential guide to the principles, design and implementation of fuel cell systems.



Inhalt

Brief Biographies xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

Acronyms and Initialisms xix

Symbols and Units xxv

1 Introducing Fuel Cells 1

1.1 Historical Perspective 1

1.2 Fuel-Cell Basics 7

1.3 Electrode Reaction Rates 9

1.4 Stack Design 11

1.5 Gas Supply and Cooling 14

1.6 Principal Technologies 17

1.7 Mechanically Rechargeable Batteries and Other Fuel Cells 19

1.7.1 MetalAir Cells 20

1.7.2 Redox Flow Cells 20

1.7.3 Biological Fuel Cells 23

1.8 Balance-of-Plant Components 23

1.9 Fuel-Cell Systems: Key Parameters 24

1.10 Advantages and Applications 25

Further Reading 26

2 Efficiency and Open-Circuit Voltage 27

2.1 Open-Circuit Voltage: Hydrogen Fuel Cell 27

2.2 Open-Circuit Voltage: Other Fuel Cells and Batteries 31

2.3 Efficiency and Its Limits 32

2.4 Efficiency and Voltage 35

2.5 Influence of Pressure and Gas Concentration 36

2.5.1 Nernst Equation 36

2.5.2 Hydrogen Partial Pressure 38

2.5.3 Fuel and Oxidant Utilization 39

2.5.4 System Pressure 39

2.6 Summary 40

Further Reading 41

3 Operational Fuel-Cell Voltages 43

3.1 Fundamental Voltage: Current Behaviour 43

3.2 Terminology 44

3.3 Fuel-Cell Irreversibilities 46

3.4 ActivationLosses 46

3.4.1 The Tafel Equation 46

3.4.2 The Constants in the Tafel Equation 48

3.4.3 Reducing the Activation Overpotential 51

3.5 InternalCurrents and Fuel Crossover 52

3.6 Ohmic Losses 54

3.7 Mass-Transport Losses 55

3.8 Combining the Irreversibilities 57

3.9 The Electrical Double-Layer 58

3.10 Techniques for Distinguishing Irreversibilities 60

3.10.1 Cyclic Voltammetry 60

3.10.2 AC Impedance Spectroscopy 61

3.10.3 Current Interruption 65

Further

Reading 68

4 Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 69

4.1 Overview 69

4.2 Polymer Electrolyte: Principles of Operation 72

4.2.1 Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Membrane 72

4.2.2 Modified Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Membranes 76

4.2.3 Alternative Sulfonated and Non-Sulfonated Membranes 77

4.2.4 AcidBase Complexes and Ionic Liquids 79

4.2.5 High-Temperature Proton Conductors 80

4.3 Electrodes and Electrode Structure 81

4.3.1 Catalyst Layers: Platinum-Based Catalysts 82

4.3.2 Catalyst Layers: Alternative Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction 85

4.3.2.1 Macrocyclics 86

4.3.2.2 Chalcogenides 87

4.3.2.3 Conductive Polymers 87

4.3.2.4 Nitrides 87

4.3.2.5 Functionalized Carbons 87

4.3.2.6 Heteropolyacids 88

4.3.3 Catalyst Layer: Negative Electrode 88

4.3.4 Catalyst Durability 88

4.3.5 Gas-Diffusion Layer 89

4.4 Water Management 92

4.4.1 Hydration and Water Movement 92

4.4.2 Air Flow and Water Evaporation 94

4.4.3 Air Humidity 96

4.4.4 Self-Humidified Cells 98

4.4.5 External Humidification: Principles 100

4.4.6 External Humidification: Methods 102

4.5 Cooling and Air Supply 104

4.5.1 Cooling with Cathode Air Supply 104

4.5.2 Separate Reactant and Cooling Air 104

4.5.3 Water Cooling 105

4.6 Stack Construction Methods 107

4.6.1 Introduction 107

4.6.2 Carbon Bipolar Plates 107

4.6.3 Metal Bipolar Plates 109

4.6.4 Flow-Field Patterns 110

4.6.5 Other Topologies 112

4.6.6 Mixed Reactant Cells 114

4.7 Operating Pressure 115

4.7.1 Technical Issues 115

4.7.2 Benefits of High Operating Pressures 117

4.7.2.1 Current 117

4.7.3 Other Factors 120

Produktinformationen

Titel: Fuel Cell Systems Explained
Autor:
EAN: 9781118706978
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Hersteller: Wiley
Genre: Wärme-, Energie- und Kraftwerktechnik
Anzahl Seiten: 488
Veröffentlichung: 14.03.2018
Dateigrösse: 25.9 MB