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Transformation of Biomass

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Biomass is a key resource for meeting the energy and material demands of mankind in the future. As a result, businesses and technologies are developing around biomass processing and its applications. Transformation of Biomass: Theory to Practice explores the modern applications of biomass and bio-based residues for the generation of energy, heat and chemical products. The first chapter presents readers with a broad overview of biomass and its composition, conversion routes and products. The following chapters deal with specific technologies, including anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis and gasification, as well as hydrothermal and supercritical conversion. Each chapter details current practises, recent developments, business case models and comprehensive analysis of the problems associated with each approach, and how to optimize them. Topics covered include: * Anaerobic digestion * Reactor design * Pyrolysis * Catalysis in biomass transformation * Engines for combined heat and power * Influence of feedstocks on performance and products * Bio-hydrogen from biomass * Analysis of bio-oils * Numerical simulation and formal kinetic parameters evaluation * Business case development This textbook will provide students, researchers and industry professionals with a practical and accessible guide to the essential skills required to advance in the field of bioenergy.


Professor Andreas Hornung is Head of theChemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Group at Aston University, Head of the European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI) and Director of EBRI UK Ltd.
Professor Hornung studied as an engineer in Chemistry at the Technical University in Darmstadt, Germany followed by a PhD of the Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. After having spent another four years at the Technical University of Karlsruhe he moved into industry, developing the prototypes for his research. He worked in Austria and Italy and in 2001 took on the position as head of the pyrolysis/gas treatment division at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. In 2007 he moved to Aston University, UK.
Professor Hornung's group researches advanced pyrolysis/gasification and pyrolysis/combustion systems for combined heat and power production. The European Bioenergy Research Institute is based at Aston University, and is a unique platform for the development and implementation of bioenergy systems in local, national and European contexts as well as reaching for International community.


About the Editor xiii

List of Contributors xv

Preface xvii

1 Biomass, Conversion Routes and Products An Overview 1
K.K. Pant and Pravakar Mohanty

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Features of the Different Generations of Biomass 2

1.3 Analysis of Biomass 5

1.3.1 Proximate and Ultimate Analysis of Biomass 6

1.3.2 Inorganic Minerals' Ash Content and Properties 8

1.4 Biomass Conversion Routes 9

1.4.1 Pyrolysis 9

1.5 Bio-Oil Characteristics and Biochar 15

1.6 Scope of Pyrolysis Process Control and Yield Ranges 16

1.6.1 Moisture Content 18

1.6.2 Feed Particle Size 18

1.6.3 Effect of Temperature on Product Distribution 18

1.6.4 Solid Residence Time 18

1.6.5 Gas Environment 18

1.6.6 Effect of Pressure on Product Distribution 19

1.7 Catalytic Bio-Oil Upgradation 19

1.8 Bio-Oil Reforming 22

1.9 Sub and Supercritical Water Hydrolysis and Gasification 23

1.9.1 Biochemical Conversion Routes 24

1.9.2 Microorganisms for Fermentation 25

1.9.3 Integrating the Bioprocess 25

Questions 25

References 28

2 Anaerobic Digestion 31
Lynsey Melville, Andreas Weger, Sonja Wiesgickl and Matthias Franke

2.1 Introduction 31

2.1.1 Microbiology of Anaerobic Digestion 31

2.1.2 Key Phases 32

2.1.3 Influence Factors on the AD 34

2.1.4 Sources of Biomass Utilised in AD 36

2.1.5 Characteristics of Biomass 39

2.1.6 Pre-Treatment of Biomass 41

2.1.7 Products of Anaerobic Digestion 45

2.1.8 Anaerobic Treatment Technology 48

Questions 54

References 54

3 Reactor Design and Its Impact on Performance and Products 61
Yassir T. Makkawi

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Thermochemical Conversion Reactors 62

3.2.1 Types of Reactors 62

3.3 Design Considerations 63

3.3.1 Hydrodynamics 64

3.3.2 Residence Time 69

3.3.3 Distributor Plate and Cyclone 72

3.3.4 Heat Transfer Mechanisms 73

3.3.5 Biomass Conversion Efficiency 75

3.4 Reactions and their Impact on the Products 76

3.4.1 Devolatization and Pyrolysis 76

3.4.2 Gasification 77

3.5 Mass and Energy Balance 79

3.5.1 Mass Balance 79

3.5.2 Energy Balance 80

3.6 Reactor Sizing and Configuration 82

3.7 Reactor Performance and Products 85

3.7.1 Moving Beds 85

3.7.2 Fluidized Bed (FB) 87

3.8 New Reactor Design and Performance 92

Nomenclature 94

Greek Symbols 95

Questions 95

References 95

4 Pyrolysis 99
Andreas Hornung

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 How Pyrolysis Reactors Differ 101

4.3 Fast Pyrolysis 102

4.4 Fast Pyrolysis Reactors 102

4.4.1 Bubbling Fluid Bed Reactor 102

4.4.2 Circulating Fluid Bed Reactor 102

4.4.3 Ablative Pyrolysis Reactor 102

4.4.4 Twin Screw Reactor Mechanical Fluidised Bed 103

4.4.5 Rotating Cone 103

4.5 Intermediate Pyrolysis 103

4.5.1 Principles 103

4.5.2 Process Technology 104

4.6 Slow Pyrolysis 105

4.6.1 Principles 106

4.6.2 Process Technology 106

4.7 Comparison of Different Pyrolysis Techniques 106

4.8 Future Directions 107

4.9 Pyrolysis in Application 107

4.9.1 Haloclean Pyrolysis and Gasification of Straw 107

4.10 Pyrolysis of Low Grade Biomass Using the Pyroformer Technology 109

Questions 110

References 110

Books and Reviews 112

5 Catalysis in Biomass Transformation 113


Titel: Transformation of Biomass
Untertitel: Theory to Practice
EAN: 9781118693612
ISBN: 978-1-118-69361-2
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Hersteller: Wiley
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Chemie
Veröffentlichung: 02.07.2014
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Dateigrösse: 15.82 MB
Anzahl Seiten: 368
Jahr: 2014