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Subsurface Sensing

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This book provides readers with a solid understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the techniques used for buried object detection. Presenting theory along with applications and the existing technology, it covers the most recent developments in hardware and software technologies of sensor systems with a focus on primary sensors such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and auxiliary sensors such as Nuclear Quadruple Resonance (NQR). It is essential reading for students, practitioners, specialists, and academicians involved in the design and implementation of buried object detection sensors.

AHMET S. TURK, PhD, has been working on land mine detection systems as a ground-penetrating impulse radar RF system and antenna designer since 1998. Dr. Turk has over thirty technical publications in the areas of high frequency and microwave radars, RF communication devices, and ultra-wide band antennas.

A. KOKSAL HOCAOGLU, PhD, has worked on image and signal analysis projects such as vehicle detection and recognition, detection of tripwires, acoustic signature analysis, and multi-sensor fusion for target recognition and tracking. He has been active in land mine detection algorithm research since 1998. Dr. Hocaoglu has over thirty technical publications in the areas of image and signal processing and pattern recognition.

ALEXEY A. VERTIY, DSc., PhD, has been working on quasi-optical imaging, generating sub-THz Smith-Purcell radiation, super low-temperature millimeter wave spectroscopy for nuclear polarized targets, and subsurface microwave and sub-THz tomography systems for security, remote sensing, non-destructive testing, and medical applications. Dr. Vertiy has over one hundred sixty scientific publications in the areas of microwave and millimeter wave technologies, including coauthorship of two books.

An in-depth primer on the capabilities and limitations of various techniquesfor detecting buried objects

Buried object detection challenges are encountered in a variety of fields, from military applications to crime scene investigations. Buried objects can be detected via many techniques, most of which are specific to the type of object and its surrounding material. Subsurface Sensing provides a deep understanding of this multidisciplinary research area, presenting theory along with applications and existing technology.

The book begins with a review of buried object detection problems, as well as the most recent developments in sensor system hardware and software technologies and the need for advanced signal and imaging techniques. Covering both primary and auxiliary sensors, this book examines the systems based on electromagnetic, acoustic, infrared, and chemical methods, along with providing pros and cons such as operating principles, strengths, limitations, and feasibilities. Readers will gain the fundamentals necessary to:

  • Comprehend the most widely used sensorselectromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, and microwave tomography

  • Utilize sensor technologies that use biological and chemical methods, nuclear quadrupole resonance, and infrared and hyperspectral systems

  • Implement multi-sensor approaches in a wide range of applications to reach the best detection performance

Subsurface Sensing is essential reading for senior undergraduate/graduate students, practitioners, specialists, and academicians involved in the design and implementation of buried object detection sensors.

Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

1 Introduction 1

Relevant Resources 4

References 4

2 Sensor Types 7

2.1 Introduction 7
A. S. Turk

2.2 Ground-Penetrating Radar 8
A. S. Turk

2.3 Electromagnetic Induction Detector 19
A. S. Turk

2.4 Microwave Tomography Method 23
A. A. Vertiy

2.5 Acoustic and Seismic Sensor 29
A. K. Hocaoglu

2.6 Optical Detectors (Infrared and Hyperspectral) 36
A. K. Hocaoglu

2.7 Biochemical Sensors 37
M. Harbeck and Z. Z. Ozturk

2.8 Nuclear Sensors 44
A. N. Bilge

References 48

3 Ground-Penetrating Radar 55

3.1 Introduction 55
A. S. Turk

3.2 GPR System Design 57
A. S. Turk

3.3 GPR Hardware 64
A. S. Turk, P. van Genderen, A. G. Yarovoy, and I. Nicolaescu

3.4 GPR Antennas 83
A. S. Turk

3.5 Signal-Processing Techniques 96
A. K. Hocaoglu

3.6 Imaging Algorithms 108
C. Ozdemir

3.7 Numerical Modeling of GPR 122
S. Aksoy, E. Basaran, and E. Ozturk

3.8 Detection and Classification Algorithms 146
A. K. Hocaoglu

References 162

4 Electromagnetic Induction 175
H. Ewald

4.1 Introduction to Metal Detectors 175

4.2 Inductive Metal Detectors: Types of Probes, Excitation, and Coil Arrangements 179

4.3 Influence of the Soil Properties 196

4.4 Modeling Inductive Metal Detectors 202

4.5 Advanced Signal-Processing and Pattern Recognition Systems for Metal Detection 211

4.6 Conclusions 223

References 224

5 Microwave Tomography 227

5.1 Overview 227
A. A. Vertiy

5.2 Electromagnetic Tomography 228
F. Soldovieri and L. Crocco

5.3 Multifrequency Tomographic Method 255
A. A. Vertiy and S. Gavrilov

5.4 Diffraction Multiview Tomographic Method in the Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Bands 310
A. O. Salman, A. A. Vertiy, and S. Gavrilov

5.5 Nonlinear Inversion Algorithms 365
L. Crocco and F. Soldovieri

References 377

6 Acoustic and Seismic Sensors 387
H. Asanuma

6.1 Overview 387

6.2 Operating Principles and Sensor Physics 389

6.3 Sensor Installation 400

6.4 Multicomponent Techniques 403

6.5 Limitations 408

6.6 Future Prospects 409

References 410

7 Auxiliary Sensors 413

7.1 Overview 413
A. N. Bilge

7.2 Biological and Chemical Methods of Explosive Detection 414
M. Harbeck and Z. Z. Ozturk

7.3 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance 429
G. V. Mozzhukhin and B. Z. Rameev

7.4 X-ray, Gamma-ray, and Neutron Techniques 451
A. N. Bilge

7.5 Electric Impedance Tomography 460
A. S. Turk

7.6 Infrared and Hyperspectral Systems 465
J. E. McFee and S. Achal

References 484

8 Multisensor Fusion 501
A. K. Hocaoglu

8.1 Preview 501

8.2 Data Association 503

8.3 Fusion Architectures 503

8.4 Probabilistic Sensor Fusion 505

8.5 Fuzzy Integrals for Information Fusion 513

8.6 Artificial Neural Networks 517

8.7 Summary 523

References 523

9 Geophysical Appli...


Titel: Subsurface Sensing
EAN: 9780470608562
ISBN: 978-0-470-60856-2
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Hersteller: Wiley
Herausgeber: Wiley
Genre: Sonstiges
Veröffentlichung: 06.07.2011
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Dateigrösse: 18.35 MB
Anzahl Seiten: 600
Jahr: 2011