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Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels, Volume 1

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The most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of all the possible aspects for biofeedstock processing and the production of energy from biofeedstocks

Biofuels production is one of the most extensively studied fields in the energy sector that can provide an alternative energy source and bring the energy industry closer to sustainability. Biomass-based fuel production, or renewable fuels, are becoming increasingly important as a potential solution for man-made climate change, depleted oil reserves, and the dangers involved with hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking"). The price of oil will always be volatile and changeable, and, as long as industry and private citizens around the world need energy, there will be a need for alternative energy sources. The area known as "biofuels and biofeedstocks" is one of the most important and quickly growing pieces of the "energy pie."

But biofuels and biofeedstocks are constantly changing, and new processes are constantly being created, changed, and improved upon. The area is rapidly changing and always innovative. It is important, therefore, that books like the volumes in this series are published and the information widely disseminated to keep the industry informed of the state-of-the-art.

This first volume in this groundbreaking new series is a collection of papers from some of the world's foremost authorities on biofeedstocks and biofuels, covering biofeedstocks and how they are processed. It is a must-have for any engineer, scientist, technician, or student working in this area.


Lalit K. Singh, PhD, was educated at Harcourt Butler Technological Institute Kanpur and received his doctorate from the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Through his research, he developed a novel sequential-co-culture technique for the efficient bioconversion of sugars to bioethanol, and important innovation in the field of biofuels and fermentation technology. He has more than 25 publications in international journals, conference proceedings, and chapters in books. He has also organized several national seminars, faculty development programs and other academic activities.

Gaurav Chaudhary, PhD is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology at Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, having earned Since a doctorate from the Indian Institute of Technolog in Roorkee, India in the field of biofuel/bioenergy. He has published five research articles in peer reviewed international journals and presented his research work in several national and international conferences. Currently he is involved in teaching & research development activities in the areas of biochemical engineering, biofuels, bioenergy, and phytochemicals.


1 Production of Bioenergy in the Framework of Circular Economy: A Sustainable Circular System in Ecuador 1
Vega-Quezada Cristhian, Blanco María and Romero Hugo

1.1 Introduction 2

1.1.1 Energy and Bioenergy 2

1.1.2 Ecuadorian Case 4

1.2 A Sustainable Circular System in Ecuador 5

1.2.1 Biogas 5 CO2 Emissions 8 Potential Electricity Power 12

1.2.2 Biodiesel 14 Biodiesel in Ecuador 15

1.2.3 Microalgae Biodiesel 16 Biomass Production 18 Lipid Extraction 18

1.3 Microalgae versus Palm Oil in Ecuador 19

1.3.1 Palm Oil 20

1.3.2 Microalgae Oil 21 Microalgae in Open Ponds 23 Microalgae in Laminar Photobioreactor 24

1.4 Discussion 27

1.5 Conclusion 29

Acknowledgements 29

References 30

2 The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Composition and Pre-treatments on Tar Formation during Biomass Gasification 33
John Corton, Paula Blanco-Sanchez P., Zakir Khan, Jon Paul McCalmont, Xi Yu, George Fletcher, Steve Croxton, James Sharp, Manosh C. Paul, Ian A. Watson I. and Iain S. Donnison

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 Tar Composition 35

2.3 Tar Formation Cell Wall Polymers and Ash Composition 37

2.3.1 The Impact of Plant Type and Blending Upon Tar Production 38

2.3.2 Blending 39

2.3.3 Ash Composition 40

2.4 Thermochemical Pre-treatments for Gasification 41

2.4.1 Torrefaction 41

2.4.2 Slow Pyrolysis 42

2.4.3 Intermediate Pyrolysis 43

2.4.4 Fast Pyrolysis 43

2.5 Processing Options that Exploit Conversion Route Integration 45

2.6 Conclusion 48

Acknowledgements 50

References 50

3 Key Pretreatment Technologies for An Efficient Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosics 55
Archana Mishra and Sanjoy Ghosh

3.1 Introduction 56

3.2 Pretreatment Methods for Lignocellulosic Biomass 58

3.2.1 Parameters for Effective Pretreatment of Lignocellulosics 59

3.2.2 Important Pretreatment Methods 61 Physical or Mechanical Methods 61 Physico-chemical Methods 62 Chemical Methods 67 Biological Methods 74

3.3 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 75

References 78

4 Present Status on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production 85
Arindam Kuila, Vinay Sharma, Vijay Kumar Garlapati, Anshu Singh, Lakshmishri Roy and Rintu Banerjee

4.1 Introduction 86

4.2 Hydrolysis/Saccharification 87

4.2.1 Cellulase 87

4.2.2 Screening of Cellulase-producing Microorganisms 88

4.2.3 Cellulase Production 90

4.2.4 Factors Affecting the Cellulase Mediated Hydrolysis 90

4.3 Future prospects of enzymatic hydrolysis 93

References 93

5 Biological Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomaterials 97
Sandeep Kaur Saggi, Geetika Gupta and Pinaki Dey

5.1 Introduction 97

5.1.1 Different Source for Bioethanol Production 99

5.1.2 Lignocellulosic Materials 100

5.1.3 Cellulose 101

5.1.4 Hemicellulose 102

5.1.5 Xylan 103

5.1.6 Lignin 104

5.1.7 Lignin Carbohydrate Interactions 106

5.2 Pretreatment 106

5.2.1 Pretreatment 106

5.3 Microbial Pretreatment Process 107

5.3.1 Fungi 107

5.3.2 Bacteria 112

5.4 Conclusion 113

References 113

6 Anaerobic Digestion and the Use of Pre-treatments on Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Improve Biogas Production and Process Economics 121
Laura Williams, Joe Gallagher, David Bryant and Sreenivas Rao Ravella

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Feeds...


Titel: Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels, Volume 1
Untertitel: Biofeedstocks and Their Processing
EAN: 9781119117292
ISBN: 978-1-119-11729-2
Format: E-Book (epub)
Hersteller: Wiley
Herausgeber: Wiley-Scrivener
Genre: Wärme-, Energie- und Kraftwerktechnik
Veröffentlichung: 30.12.2016
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Dateigrösse: 5.88 MB
Anzahl Seiten: 192
Jahr: 2016